Microsoft Windows 98 Installation

This guide is meant to be fairly specific to Windows 98, covering both the original commercial release (Windows 98 First Edition) and the subsequent Windows 98 Second Edition (“Win98SE”).

There are some post-installation recommendations as well. Do read up on those.

This guide has quite a few pictures, accessible via hyperlinks. To go from one picture to another, another Picture-viewing interface via JavaScript is available.

In addition to this guide, some additional references include the more general guide to installing an operating system, and MS KB Q221829: How to Install Windows 98 on a Computer with No Operating System.

These notes and screenshots on this guide are generally made from using Windows 98 Second Edition. However, the general installation process is mostly the same between Windows 98 (First Edition) and Windows 98 Second Edition.

Preparation

Some details about the operating system, such as system requirements, may be in the section on Microsoft and Compatible/Similar Operating System Code.

For compatability with ScanDisk, making a drive that is 133,693,376 KB might be the largest size that is quite simple to work with. (This filesize was based on some information shown at: FAT filesystem details.) For example, if Qemu is being used, instructions at the section about making a QCow image provides details that may suggest a command like the following (for the drive that will contain the C: used to boot up).

For RAM, a machine 256 MB might commonly be plenty. Machines that use 512MB or more of RAM do start to have problems, which can often be dealt with quite successfully with a tiny bit of effort. However, if there is no expected need for that much RAM, the problems may be avoidable entirely just by not providing so much RAM.

qemu-img create -f qcow2 win98sec.qc2 127.5G

If further information on the topic is desired, more details/comments about partition size may be in the section about MBR-based disk layout.

It is handy to have a floppy disk image with some files that will help with this experience. (Obviously, since the term “floppy disk image” is being used, these files will be small by today's standards.) See: Disk image formats: floppy disk image for details.

Booting

Approximation of initial screen:

Microsoft Windows 98 CD-ROM Startup Menu
========================================

1.  Boot from Hard Disk
2.  Boot from CD-ROM

Enter your choice: _   Time remaining: 10

(Those might not actually be equal signs. Perhaps it is Code Page 437's character # 205.)

This is actually a ten second counter. It only counts down to one. (In contrast, the next boot menu (when booting from the CD, or from a Windows 98 installation on a hard drive) counts down to zero.)

Unlike some later versions of Microsoft Windows, the boot process does not try to check the hard drive, and then determine a default booting decision based on whether the hard drive is partitioned.

If the drive is truely blank, then the default option (“1.  Boot from Hard Disk”) will not do much good. So press the down arrow key, or the 2 key, and then press Enter.

The following is shown whenever “Boot for CD-ROM” is chosen:


  Microsoft Windows 98 Startup Menu
  ==================================

     1. Start Windows 98 Setup from CD-ROM.
     2. Start computer with CD-ROM support.
     3. Start computer without CD-ROM support.

  Enter a choice: 1       Timeout remaining: 29















  F5=Safe mode  Shift+F5=Command prompt  Shift+F8=Step-by-step confirmation [N] 

(Those might not actually be equal signs. Perhaps it is Code Page 437's character # 205.)

In general, there is little reason to use option #3. It simply boots faster than either other option, but Shift-F5 may be even faster.

Most people may think to choose option #1, but actually the preferred method is to use option #2, and then use some command line options as described later:

If loading the CD-ROM drivers (perhaps especially if using a Qemu virtual machine), the AIC-78??/* ASPI Manager for DOS drivers by Adaptec may take a while (unchecked... perhaps a minute?) where the system may seem stalled after outputing “PCI bus scan complete.” The recommended solution is to simply be patient.

Eventually, the screen will clear and will then show something like the following. (Perhaps this might differ on a system with two CD drives?)

MSCDEX Version 2.25
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corp. 1986-1995. All rights reserved.
       Drive D: = Driver OEMCD001 unit 0

A:\>_
Setup: First boot (after the disk is partitioned)
Disk Layout Details
Disk partitioning

WARNING: SEVERE DATA LOSS can occur easily when using the software involved with this process. These instructions are primarily provided to assist with a brand new drive. If using the disk partitioning software on a drive that has pre-existing data, that pre-existing data can very easily be wiped out, and become difficult or infeasible to recover (unless an accessible backup is available). Do NOT proceed with disk partitioning if the drive has any precious data, unless suitably familiar with the impact that will be caused by all of the changes that will be made.

There are some additional tricks/techniques to maximizing space on partitions.

If the drive is 133,693,376 KB, simply making a single large partition can be the simplest partitioning scheme, and will likely work out rather sufficiently. Make sure that the partition is marked as an Active partition. That is recommended for those who have a virtual hard drive of 133,693,376 KB, or a physical drive that is a bit under that size (such as a physical Maxtor 120GB hard drive).

Even if ScanDisk was not an issue, the LBA 28 limit of 267,386,880 sectors (65,536 cylinders x 16 heads x 255 sectors per track) results in a maximum of exactly 127.5 GB if the standard sector size (1/2 KB) is used. Larger drives may be problematic (leading to data corruption) if using the drives that come with the operating system, even if the additional space is left unpartitioned. The only really feasible work-around to that limit seems to be to use third party drivers.

Additional partitioning techniques may be available, however are also more advanced. Details, for those interested in exploring further (including doing quite a bit of reading) may be available on the pages about: Disk Layout, FAT.

Note: Win98's FDisk program has some limitations. (Presumably Win95's will also be old.) Either see Q263044, or use another method to partition disks. For instance, XFDisk is probably easier to use, supports installing a Boot Manager if desired, and was selected by FreeDOS as the default partioning program. Ranish Partition Manager reveals even more details about how data is actually laid out on the disk. All of this software is mentioned in the section about editing partitions on an MBR Disk.

When adjusting partitions using any of this MS-DOS software (XFDisk or Ranish Partition Manager or FDisk), expect to need to reboot the operating system at the end.

Formatting the drive

After rebooting so the new partitions are clearly recognized by the operating system, go ahead and load CD-ROM drive support. It might not be needed for formatting the drive, but another reboot won't be needed until after SETUP.exe is run.

Note: This process can easily cause substantial data loss!

The general process is documented by: Making a filesystem: requirement of a zero'ed sector, and nearby text. Simply run the following if C: needs to be formatted.

A couple of different methods to format the drive
FindCD
%CDROM%\Win98\FORMAT.COM /AUTOTEST /U C:

The above example is assuming that the FindCD command was able to set the %CDROM% variable to look at the correct CD drive. If the CD-ROM drivers are not loaded, then the following may also be attempted:

Extract A:\EBD.CAB FORMAT.COM SYS.COM
FORMAT.COM /AUTOTEST /U C:

That might work fine, or the Extract command may result in an error message about writing to the virtual floppy disk that is created by the El Torito process's floppy drive emulation. If the system does not allow writing to the A:, then using CD-ROM drivers may be recommended.

The FORMAT command might output a size that appears to be nonsense, such as Formatting 65,02.47M (for a hard drive that is 133,693,376 KB large). The good news (documented by MS KB 263045: Format Displays Size of Partitions or Logical Drives Larger Than 64 GB Incorrectly) is that the problem with the displayed output “This is a display (or cosmetic) issue only; the drive is formatted to its full size.” (Although FDisk may actually have some serious issues handling large drives until it is properly upgraded, the FORMAT command does seem to effectively do its job okay.) So, do not let the cosmetic output lead to worry about whether the data stored on the partition will be safe. If data corruption ends up occurring, the cause is not expected to be related to this output-related bug in the Format command.)

Formatting 65,02.47M
Writing out file allocation table
Complete.
Calculating free space (this may take several minutes)...
Complete.


(The exact origin of the 65,02.47M number is not known by the author of this text. This paragraph offers some speculation (and no final/concrete answers) for the curious. Perhaps based on similar behavior by FDisk, it is believed this is referring to 65,024.7x MB (where “x” is an unknown digit), and the number is then processed by text formatting code. 65024.7 MB = 66,585,292.8 KB that is being reported. 65024.8 MB would be 66,585,395.2 KB, and the drive size seems to be getting reported as less than that. The 133,693,376 KB drive size minus a number from 66,585,292.8 KB to 66,585,395.2 KB (the reported size) = a number from 67,108,083.2 KB to 67,107,980.8 that is being subtracted to get the reported size. 67,108,083.2 KB is 65,535.2375 MB, and 67,107,980.8 KB is 65535.1375 MB. So the number being subtracted from the actaul drive total is actually 0.7625 MB (780.8KB) to 0.8625 MB (883.2 KB) less than 65,536 MB (64GB).)

Running setup

The recommended method for running the installer is NOT to choose the default options for installation, which cause Setup.exe to run with default parameters. Instead, the recommended method is to first make sure that any required disk partitioning is done, format the drive if needed, and then boot with CD-ROM support, and then run Setup.exe with some parameters to increase verbosity during hardware detection. (After all, why bother NOT having such details be displayed?)

Identify the drive letter of the CD-ROM drive. In the above example, the computer system had only one recognized hard drive, and so the CD-ROM drive was D:.

FindCD
%CDROM%\Setup.exe /ir /p c-;g=3;m;p

The /ir might not be publicly documented by Microsoft, but can have the effect of not updating the MBR which would clobber any pre-existing boot manager. As long as there is boot code in the MBR (which likely happened if FDISK was used, or if XFDisk installed the Boot Manager and added a boot option for the boot manager). If the disk partitioning program just clobbered the MBR anyway, that may not matter. Otherwise, keeping the MBR unclobbered may be nicer (more convenient) so that other operating systems can also be easily started. If there are any versions of Windows 98's SETUP.EXE that do not support that switch, just leave it off (and expect to need to re-install any pre-existing boot manager).

If the hard drive is fairly large and slow, an alternative may be preferred:

%CDROM%\Setup.exe /is /ir /p c-;g=3;m;p

Another command line switch that may be desired is “/ie” (ignore code to create an “emergency” boot disk). Switches for Win9x setup mentions some others (some of which are being documented here without having yet fully verified tested them): /ICH may cause ScanDisk to be more visible, /IF may speed up disk access, /IW may disable an interface related to a Windows EULA, /NM may cause Setup to NOT run a check of the machine's minimum CPU speed (or the presense of an FPU, per Wikipedia's article on Windows 98), /IX may provide more compatablity with toher code pages. (Note for Windows 95 or Windows NT releases: If the operating system wants to install only to a hard drive without a detected operating system, try first making a file called C:\NTLDR exists, and then use the /NTLDR switch.)

GUI Installation: first boot

Hopefully the screen progresses past the text greeting.


Please wait while Setup initializes.
Scanning system registry...
Wind

[Windows 98 Setup: Welcome] (Estimated time remaining: 30-60 minutes)

Press Alt-C, or press Enter (without pushing Tab first), or use the mouse to click the “Continue” button.

[Setup preparing Win98 Setup Wizard: 6% done]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Select Directory” (initial default screen)] (Estimated time remaining: 42 minutes)]

In this example, simply Tab was pressed. Note: In hind-sight, it is often better to identify the Windows directory with a useful name, such as C:\Win98SE if using Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition, or C:\Win98FE if using Microsoft Windows 98 First Edition (also sometimes known as Microsoft Windows 98 Standard Edition).

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Select Directory” (continue button selected)]

Sit back and wait...

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Preparing Directory” screen: “Checking for installed components...” progress bar (7%)] (Estimated time remaining: 40 minutes)

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Preparing Directory” screen: “Checking for installed components...” progress bar (96%)]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Preparing Directory” screen: “Checking for installed components...” progress bar (100%)]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Preparing Directory” screen: “Checking for available disk space...” progress bar (0%)]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Preparing Directory” screen: “Checking for available disk space...” progress bar (17%)]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Preparing Directory” screen: “Checking for available disk space...” progress bar (64%)]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Setup options” screen (initial view: Typical chosen by default)] (Estimated time remaining: 38 minutes)

When installing operating systems, choosing an optin such as Compact is often a good option. This is true with Windows 98. Even if there is a desire to install more software, that can be done fairly easily after the operating system is installed. Furthermore, waiting until after the operating system is installed may be the nicer time to perform the installation of optional software components, because by that time the operating system will be providing a multitasking environment. Selecting Compact now may install only a very small number of optional components (the screen isn't accurate when it says &dlquo;none”), leading to a quicker initial installation of the operating system.

In general, when the option is presented, a good practice for saavy computer users is to select “Custom”, to at least be able to see what is getting installed.

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Setup options” screen: “Custom” selected]

However, in this case, that is not necessary. If any option other than “Custom” is selected, then the user gets prompted with an option to review what was selected.

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: offer to review a list of components (ignore the text that says “(Recommended)”)]

If this screen appears, ignore the word “Recommended” and choose the lower option.

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Show me the list of components so I can choose” selected]
[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: Ready to display a list of components (“Next >” button selected)

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Select Components” screen (initial view) (Win98SE version)] (Estimated time remaining: 36 minutes)

The sheer number of options in this section may take minutes to look over. Realize that the decisions made on this screen can be changed later, easily, as long as the installation files (on the CD, or copied from the CD) are as readily available at that time. So, if there's a time crunch, there's little reason to worry about making a perfect decision immediately. (In fact, it might be nicer to make changes to this section later, after the operating system is providing a multitasking environment.)

Component List

Following is a list of operating system “Components” that show up during the default installation of Win98SE. This can also be accessed using the “Add/Remove Programs” Control Panel applet's “Windows Setup” tab, which lists the installed Components and allows (un)installation of components.

The &ldquo:Default Action” sections are describing what happened when “Custom” was chosen from the menu about which components to install.

Accessibility (Defaults to 1 component, 0.4MB, out of 2 components, 4.6MB possible)

“Includes standard Accessibility Options and new Accessibility Tools.”

Accessiblity Options
Official Description
Includes tools to change keyboard, sound, display, and mouse behavior for people with mobility, hearing or visual impairments.
Default action
Include
Space required
0.4MB
Recommendation:

Keep it; it is fairly small (0.4MB).

Accessibility Tools (8.4MB default out of
Official Description
Includes a Magnifier tool, an Accessibility Wizard, and high-visibility mouse cursors.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
4.2 MB
Recommendation:

Either way. The Magnifier tool can occassionally be nicer than an alternative approach to magnify (which is to take a screenshot and then zoom in with MSPaint). So, if disk space is a non-issue, don't be afraid to include.

Accessories

By default: 6 and 2/3 (rounded down to six), totaling 8.4 MB, out of a possible 12 components totaling 14.3 MB, get installed.

“Includes Windows accessories and enhancements for your computer.”

Briefcase
Official Description
Synchronizes files between computers
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.0 MB
Recommendation
Include? It is listed as 0.0 MB, so there's little reason to not just include it.
Calculator
Official Description
Performs mathematical calculations
Default Action
Include
Space required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
Include. Calc.exe can be handy.
Desktop Wallpaper
Official Description
Provides background images and pictures for your Windows desktop
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.7 MB
Recommendation
?
Document Templates
Official Description
Supplies layouts for new documents in your most common programs
Default Action
Include
Space required
0.4 MB
Recommendation
Probably exclude. Exclude, unless the system is likely to be used for dealing with office products. Even then, the office suite may include its own templates which may be updated beyond these bundled with the operating system. However, if there is a reasonable chance that they will be used, and if the CD's installation files are not going to be readily accessible (such as being copied to the hard drive), then they are only 0.4MB.
Games
Official Description
Includes FreeCell, Hearts, Minesweeper, and Solitaire games.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.6 MB
Recommendation
Generally: Include. These games have become well-known. The version of Hearts can be played over the network. Include, unless the computer is for a specific special purpose AND there is concern that people will be wasting time when playing games would be detrimental. Otherwise, if someone wants to be entertained, let the person achieve the desired goal.
Imaging
Official Description
Image Viewer, ActiveX Custom Controls and TWAIN support
Default Action
Include
Space required
4.2 MB
Recommendation
Exclude if there's no chance that TWAIN support will be needed. TWAIN is the name for the technology used to support scanners (a device that creates a digital image from a paper, or perhaps from another flat surface) and perhaps digital cameras. Image Viewer is fairly useless because this functionality can be performed by a web browser or by MS Paint. (Microsoft Internet Explorer is presumably included.) ActiveX has often represented a security vulnerability, and the versions of the software bundled with the operating system are likely not an exception.
Mouse Pointers
Official Description
Provides different types and sizes of pointers that can be used to represent your mouse.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.0 MB
Recommendation
Include. The file size is insignificant, so there's no compelling reason to have this be excluded.
Paint
Official Description
Draws, modifies, or displays pictures.
Default Action
Include
Space required
1.1 MB
Recommendation

This can be handy. The program is very simplistic, so serious artists would want to download a more useful program for editing graphics. However, for being able to save a screenshot or make a simple edit, this can be nice. Note, however, that this old version does not support some of the newer image standards that have become popular. For example, *.PNG files are not supported. (A *.PNG can be edited by viewing it in a web browser, and then copying the image to the clipboard, and then pasting the image into Paint. However, saving directly to the *.PNG is not an available option.)

Quick View
Official Description
Previews a document without opening it.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
4.7 MB
Recommendation

Exclude this, for the same reason why the Imaging component is recommended for exclusion. Plus, this is larger. And, the description is a bit misleading. (Surely the file needs to be opened at some point, even for a preview, even if this gets rendered as nothing more than a preview window of some sort.)

Screen Savers
Official Description
Displays moving images when your computer is idle to prevent damage to your screen
Default Action
Include 2 of 3
Space required
1.3 MB (interesting, as the components are .2 MB + .1 MB + 1.1 MB, so there must be some rounding occurring)
Details
Additional Screen Savers

Default excluded. “Includes Flying Through Space, Mystify Your Mind, Curves and Colors, Scrolling Marquee, and Blank Screen screen savers.” A measily 0.2 MB, so including is recommended.

Flying Windows
“A screen saver that displays flying Windows logos.” 0.1 MB
OpenGL Screen Savers
“3-dimensional screen savers.” 1.1 MB
Recommendation

Add the Additional Screen Savers in case there is ever any interest in them. They are tiny so there's little reason not to include them as well.

Windows Scripting Host
Official Description
Write scripts to help automate tasks in Windows
Default Action
Include
Space required
0.4 MB
Recommendation
Include. This can be great for computer programming and/or running programs that other people have written.
WordPad
Official Description
Edits short memos and documents.
Default Action
Include
Space required
1.3 MB
Recommendation
Include: Some software might assume that this is installed. It also loads up fairly quickly compared to some more full-fledged word processes. For more details, see: Wordpad. For similar software, see: word processing and/or editing text files.
Address Book
Official Description
Contact management and directory services.
Default Action
Include (in Win98SE; not an option in Win98 First Edition)
Space required
1.7 MB
Recommendation
(The following is probably right, but may need to be double-checked...) Exclude: Don't bother installing this old version. If this software is really going to be used, updating MS IE to 6.0 SP1, and use the Address Book software that is bundled with that version of Internet Explorer.
Communications

Default 5.4MB, 3 components of 9. If 8 are selected (not including “Dial-Up ATM Support”), then 9.6MB is used.

“Includes accessories to help you connect to other computers and online services”.

Dial-Up ATM Support
Official Description
Provides support for making Dial-Up Network connections using ATM devices such as ADSL modems.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
Unknown... the checkbox doesn't seem to be checkable!
Recommendation
This probably should be excluded anyway. Modern ADSL modems tend to be connected to the computer via an Ethernet cable, and this component is not normally something that needs to be intentionally installed.
Dial-Up Networking
Official Description
Provides a connection to other computers via a modem.
Default Action
Include
Space required
1.0 MB
Recommendation

Include. This may be quite nice to have if there's ever a chance that a dial-up modem may be used. It is believed that even some other functionality (such as VPN support) might also use Dial-Up Networking.

The most compelling reason to exclude this would just be if an upgraded version is going to be installed anyway.

Dial-Up Server
Official Description
Provides a connection to you computer via a modem.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.1 MB
Recommendation
If this is even remotely interesting or likely to be used, go ahead and install the tiny (0.1MB) software.
Direct Cable Connection
Official Description
Provides a connetion to other computers via a parallel or serial cable.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.4 MB
Recommendation

Unknown. For possibly similar programs, see: file xfer, remote access (specifically the “Interacting as a dumb terminal” section)

HyperTerminal
Official Description
Provides a connection to other computers and online services via a modem.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
0.8 MB
Recommendation

Generally exclude. If Internet access will be getting set up soon, and this software is not going to be needed for working Internet access, then don't bother installing this old version. TOOGAM's software archive: HyperTerminal has information about available upgraded versions of this software. For instance, version 5.0.1636.1 was distributed by Microsoft. Also, the rest of the TOOGAM's software archive: Terminal programs section describes alternatives.

However, this isn't necessarily bad software. If the installation files for the operating system are going to be easier to use than files obtained from the Internet, the software may be fairly decent. When Microsoft started licensing HyperAccess from Hilgraeve (which was done from the days of Windows 95 up through Windows XP, but not Windows Vista or newer), they chose to use a vendor who made a fairly well known GUI-based communications product.

Microsoft Chat 2.5
Official Description
Enables you to chat with people on a chat server.
Default Action
Exclude
Space required
3.1MB
Recommendation
Unknown (not generally considered essential, so probably exclude)
NetMeeting
Official Description
Enables you to call people on the Internet or a LAN.  While in a call you can talk to someone, share applications, draw in a shared whiteboad, and send files and messages.
Default Action
Include
Space required
4.3 MB
Recommendation
(Probably an old version?)
Phone Dialer
Official Description
Enables you to use your computer to dial a phone through a modem.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
Include, in case the installation of Microsoft Windows 98 ever gets onto a machine that may have a usable dial-up modem. The chances of that may seem very slim, but this is only 0.2 MB.
Virtual Private Networking
Official Description
Provides secure connections to the private networks across public networks such as the Internet.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.1 MB
Recommendation
Although VPN functionality is a great item to have available, this software is likely older and less secure than some other newer alternatives that may be available?
Desktop Themes

“Installs a variety of themes you can use to customize your wallpaper, sounds, mouse pointers, and other desktop features.” Default: 0 of 17 components selected. 31.7MB if all get selected.

Of them, Jungle and “More Windows” may be among the most full-featured. Adding any of the other sub-features will want to add the sub-feature called “Desktop Themese Support”. Additionally, adding the theme called “More Windows” will want to install the theme called “Windows 98”.

Internet Tools

Default 1 compontent (0.2MB) out of 5 components (11.3MB) are enabled.

“Includes tools that help you use the Internet.”

Internet Connection Sharing

Note: This feature was one of the key features found in Win98SE but not in Win98 First Edition. (Another such feature is inclusion of some newer drivers.) So this certainly does not show up in a typical Windows 98 First Edition installation.

Official Description
Allow multiple computers to hsare a single Internet connection.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.9 MB
Recommendation

Include. This may or may not be a good idea, but if a desire for this functinality becomes apparent than having the code available will generally be nice. It's also not too large.

Basically, this allows an IPv4 connection to be shared, by using NAT (perhaps specifically PAT a.k.a. NAPT?).

Microsoft Wallet
Official Description
Microsoft Wallet provides a secure place to store private information for Internet shipping
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
2.9 MB
Recommendation
Exclude
Personal Web Server
Official Description
With Personal Web Server, you can serve Web pages directly from your desktop Web site.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation

Useless, except as a reminder to get the real software properly installed (if any of the installed component would even be noticed). This “component” is not actually the software that is beign described. Instead, the Start Menu (Programs, Accessories, Internet Tools) gets a hyperlink to a file at %windir%\HELP\PWS_MAIN.HTM that includes instructions to go install the software from the CD. There are also 4 %windir%\HELP\PWS*.GIF (graphic) files, and %windir%\HELP\PWS.CHM file (meant to assist with providing help learning about the software). The software itself still will need to be installed.

This software has been known to function fairly easily. In Win98SE, PWS 4.0 is on the CD.

Might also be easy to install outside of the Setup program: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/306898 refers to running \add-ons\pws\setup.exe from the operating system's CD. http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc723558.aspx http://support.microsoft.com/kb/304197 http://support.microsoft.com/kb/164571 http://support.microsoft.com/kb/266456 This may also be available by running under D:\Addons?

MS KB 161150: overview/comparison of MS PWS and FP PWS. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/216453 Win98SE has \ADD-ONS\PWS\*.* files including \ADD-ONS\PWS\setup.exe

Web Publishing Wizard
Official Description
Provides services to easily upload content to a web server.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
1.1 MB
Recommendation
Exclude. For decent software to perform this task, see: file xfer
Web-Based Enterprise Mgmt
Official Description
Components necessary for system administrators and support technicians to provide remote problem tracking and system administration.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
6.4 MB
Recommendation

WBEM (also known as WMI) is great! At least, it is in Windows XP and newer operating systems. The term “Enterprise” refers to its ability to help even complex situations, and does not mean that only giant “Enterprise” organizations would find this to be useful.

WMI, which basically is WBEM, allows for easy management (a.k.a. control) of a computer, including automated methods.

That said, this may be an older version. (Further research is needed, at the time of this writing.)

For further details: WMI

Multilanguage Support

Default: 0 components of 5 components (21.6MB)

“Adds Albanian, Bulgarian, Belarusian, Czech, Estonian, Greek, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, SErbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Ukrainian, and Turkish.”

Default action on each of these is to exclude.

Baltic
Official Description
Adds Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian language support.
Space Required
4.3 MB
Central European
Official Description
Adds Albanian, Czech, Croatian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Slovak, and Slovenian language support.
Space Required
4.6 MB
Cyrillic
Official Description
Adds Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian language support.
Space Required
4.4 MB
Greek
Official Description
Adds Greek language support.
Space Required
4.3 MB
Turkish
Official Description
Adds Turkish language support.
Space Required
4.2 MB
Multimedia

Defaults 7 components (4.5 MB) out of 9 components (11.4 M)

“Includes programs for playing sound, animation, or video on computers that have CD-ROM drives or sound cards.”

Audio Compression
Official Description
Provides audio compression for recording or playing back multimedia.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
Include
CD Player
Official Description
Plays audio CDs.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
Include it. It is simple, but nice. Also, it is small.
Macromedia Shockwave
Official Description
Macromedia Shockwave plays Directory files.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
3.1 MB
Recommendation
...
Macromedia Shockwave Flash
Official Description
Macromedia Shockwave plays Flash files.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
...
Multimedia Sound Schemes
Official Description
Provides different Sound Schemes to enhance Windows system events.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
6.5 MB
Recommendation
...
Sample Sounds
Official Description
Sample sounds for playback on your computer.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.6 MB
Recommendation
...
Sound Recorder
Official Description
Utility to record and play sounds by using a sound card.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
Include. It is a simple WAV player, and is tiny.
Video Compression
Official Description
Provides video compression for recording or playing back multimedia.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.5 MB
Recommendation
This is tiny, so may be worthwhile. Also check out the “Media Player Codecs (official packages by Microsoft)” from TOOGAM's software archive: Multimedia codecs.
Volume Control
Official Description
Adjusts volumes controlled by sound cards.
Default Action
Include
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
Include
Online Services (4 of 4 components, 1.2MB, selected)

The recommendation is to unselect this entire category. If any of these providers of services want are desired, they will likely have released a newer installer. By default, they are all selected. None of them should be.

“Adds support for MSN, America Online, AT&T WorldNet Service, CompuServe, and Prodigy Internet online services.” Interestingly, MSN is mentioned in the overall description of the category, but is not one of the optional sub-components.

America Online
Official Description
Sets up your computer for the installation of America Online.
Space Required
0.2 MB
AT&T WorldNet Service
Official Description
Sets up your computer for the installation of AT&T WorldNet Service.
Space Required
0.2 MB
CompuServe
Official Description
Sets up your computer for the installation of CompuServe.
Space Required
0.1 MB
Prodigy Internet
Official Description
Sets up your computer for the installation of Prodigy Internet.
Space Required
0.8 MB
Outlook Express (4.7 MB)
Official Description
“Easy to use Internet e-mail and newsgroup reader.”
Default Action
Include
Recommendation
Exclude, mainly because this is an older version of the software. If this software is going to be used, it would be better to first install a newer version that is bundled with a newer version of Microsoft Internet Explorer.
System Tools (2 components (2.6 MB) of 9 (7.7MB) selected)

“Includes utilities for compressing and maintaining your disks and other system utilities.”

Backup
Official Description
Program to backup and save data and files. Supports backup to floppy and tape drives.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
4.6 MB
Recommendation
Character Map
Official Description
Inserts symbols and characters into documents.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.1 MB
Recommendation
Include this. It can be useful and it is small.
Clipboard Viewer
Official Description
Displays the contents of the Windows clipboard.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.1 MB
Recommendation
Include. It is quite small.
Disk compression tools
Official Description
Utilities that will allow you to install disk compression after Windows is installed
Default Action
Include
Space Required
2.2 MB
Recommendation
Include (so that if a compressed disk gets encountered, this might be able to handle it). By the way, speaking of disk compression, also snag support for Zip files. See: TOOGAM's software archive: Archivers. For more information about full disk compression, see Compressed Hard Drive files, Making compressed hard drive images.
Group Policies
Official Description
Group-based support for system policies
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.1 MB
Recommendation
...
Net Watcher
Official Description
Monitors your network server and connections.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
? (Perhaps for similar: watching network.
System Monitor
Official Description
Provides tools for monitoring system performance.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.2 MB
Recommendation
...
System Resource Meter
Official Description
Displays system resource levels.
Default Action
Exclude
Space Required
0.1 MB
Recommendation
...
Web TV for Windows

By default, nothing is included. “Installs Web TV for Windows and WaveTop Data Broadcasting Service.”

WaveTop Data Broadcasting
Official Description
Adds WaveTop capability to your TV tuner.  The service features the 'Best of the Web' content and software downloads without using an ISP or telephone line.
Default Action
Exclude. Even if the checkbox of the parent gets altered, the checkbox goes from blank to grey, because by default this still remains excluded.
Space Required
23.9 MB
Recommendation
...
Web TV for Windows
Official Description
Installs Web TV for Windows.
Default Action
Exclude.
Space Required
42.1 MB
Recommendation
...

The computer will ask for an “Identification” (name). The “Workgroup” will default to “WORKGROUP” and the default “Computer Description” will be blank, but the “Computer name” will be psuedo-random.

[“Identification” screen]

[“Identification” screen (tabbed)]

The title bar returns to being called “Windows 98 Setup Wizard”, and asks about details that may differ for users around the world.

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: Computer Settings (Keyboard Layout and Regional Settings) (Initial view)] (Estimated time remaining: 34 minutes)

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: Computer Settings (Keyboard Layout and Regional Settings) (“Next >” button highlighted)]

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Establishing Your Location”]

Then the “Windows 98 Setup Wizard” may show a “Startup Disk” screen. This screen can simply be skipped by using the /ie command line switch when running Setup. If the disk is not desired, do not press the “Cancel” button on this first screen (and doing so will ask about Canceling the entire operating system setup). Instead, go ahead and choose the “Next >” button. (Perhaps the 20% of progess bar getting filled is creating an EBD.CAB on C:?) A dialog box will appear. From that point, choosing “Cancel” can work nicely to skip just the creation of a prepared bootable floppy disk.

File copying time

[“Windows 98 Setup Wizard”: “Start Copying Files”] (Estimated time remaining: 30 minutes)

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Welcome to Microsoft Windows 98”]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: 4% Complete] (Estimated time remaining: 29 minutes)

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Windows Just Got Better” (6% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 28 minutes)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: 8% Complete]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “More Innovative” (10% Complete)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Easier to Use” (15% Complete)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Easier to Get Help”: 20% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 27 minutes]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Brings the Web to Your Desktop”, 30% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 26 minutes]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: 31% Complete]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Enhances Communication”: 36% Complete]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: 38% Complete]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “New Communication Tools” (40% Complete)] mentions Outlook Express, Windows Media Player, and NetMeeting.

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Faster Performance” (46% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 25 minutes]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: More Storage Space (50% Complete)] mentions FAT32

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: 53% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 24 minutes]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Increased Dependability” (55% Complete)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: (58% Complete)] mentions System File Checker and ScanDisk

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Increased Reliability” (62% Complete)] mentions System File Checker and ScanDisk

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “More Entertaining” (67% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 23 minutes)] mentions 3D graphics, Internet, DVD, and MMX (identified as a trademark of Intel Corporation)

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Better Games” (70% Complete)] mentions DirectX, including force feedback joysticks and another reference to 3D.

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: 71% Complete]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Supports New Hardware” (75% Complete)] mentions USB

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “More Accessible” (80% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 22 minutes)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “More Customizable” (85% Complete)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Check Out Windows Update” (90% Complete, Estimated time remaining: 21 minutes)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: “Thank You” (95% Complete)] (“Please register your copy of Windows 98.” Then, on the next line (presumably meant to be like a signature) is: “The Microsoft Windows 98 Team”

[Windows 98 Setup: “Copying Windows 98 files to your computer”: (textless middle of the screen) 100% Complete]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Windows 98 Setup” dialog box: “Setup is now ready to restart your computer.  Remove” “all disks from floppy disk drives and click OK to restart.” ([OK])]

Reboot time

Upon pressing Enter, there is 20 minutes left according to the official estimation...

Then, the user is forced to either reboot or... wait, and then reboot.

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (1/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (2/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (3/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (4/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (5/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (6/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (7/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (8/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (9/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (10/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (11/12 filled)]

[Windows 98 Setup: “Restart Computer”: 15 second progress bar (12/12 filled)]

[Blank text screen (showing just a cursor in the home position)]

Optional/Recommended steps for the next boot

When Setup.exe reboots the first time, the best approach may be to leave the bootable CD in the CD drive. Then, while the timer is counting down, hold down the Ctrl key. When the timer times out on the default option, which is to boot from the hard drive, the Ctrl key will be held down, which will cause the “Microsoft Windows 98 Setup Menu” to appear. At that menu, either choose the option for “Command prompt only” or press Shift-F5: Either will get to a command prompt.


  Microsoft Windows 98 Startup Menu
  ==================================

     1. Normal
     2. Logged (\BOOTLOG.TXT)
     3. Safe mode
     4. Step-by-step confirmation
     5. Command prompt only
     6. Safe mode command prompt only

  Enter a choice: 1       Timeout remaining: 29












  F5=Safe mode  Shift+F5=Command prompt  Shift+F8=Step-by-step confirmation [N] 

(Those might not actually be equal signs. Perhaps it is Code Page 437's character # 205.)

At this point, there are some customizations that can be nice to make.

[#w98limem]: Limiting RAM in Win98
If the system has more than 524,288 KB (512 MB) of RAM

Notes by TOOGAM about a RAM limit

dir %winbootdir%\SYSTEM*.*
copy %winbootdir%\SYSTEM.INI %winbootdir%\SYSTEM.001
EDIT %winbootdir%\SYSTEM.INI

Check the value of the [Vcache]'s MaxFileCache. (Especially if this is being done when Win98SE is being installed, the line probably will not pre-exist, and so will need to be added.) If there is at least 748,983 KB of RAM (512+128+64+16+8+2+1 and 489/1024 MB), add the following:

MaxFileCache=524288

Otherwise, if there is more than 524288 KB (512MB) of RAM, reports suggest that using 70% of the total RAM is a better number. This may not be needed for systems that have less than 512 MB of RAM.

MS KB 108079 indicated that Microsoft did not test above 40960 (for Windiows 95, which the article applies to). It seems that 524288 might be a maximum value, so trying a much lower value like 40960 probably won't cause substantial harm (although it may limit the speed benefit that cache is designed to try to provide).

If the system has 1GB or more of RAM

In addition to setting [Vcache]'s MaxFileCache, also set [386enh]'s MaxPhysPage value.

Locate the [386enh] section. See if there is a line for MaxPhysPage. (There probably is not.) If it does not exist, add it. Make sure the value is set to a value that is no higher than 40000. For example:

MaxPhysPage=2C000

Note: The value does refer to pages of memory. On a 486 or a Pentium, each page is 4KB (0x1000 bytes). Systems with less memory may need to specify a smaller amount, such as 30000. (That would be 0x30000 pages of 4KB each, which is 768 MB.) Other systems might want to try 3C000 (which is 960MB), but it might be safer to do that after the second reboot (after Plug and Play devices have been scanned for, and the time zone has been set). (The reason for this is simply that a virtual machine seemed to have locked up. Lowering the value to 30000 and rebooting seemed to fix that.)

Actually, upon encountering a fresh installation that had problems even with 30000, the current recommendation is to try 2C000.

Microsoft has provided multiple values to use. KB 184447 seems to suggest 0x30000, while Q181862 shows values in increments of 0x00800 going from 0x00800 up through 0x3C000 and KB 304943 indicates a value of 0x40000. Unless there is a known need for more than 768MB, then trying to use 0x30000 might be the safest starting point.

There are various recommendations on what to set MaxPhysPage to. Findings are that setting it to 40000 can cause the system to be unable to start an MS-DOS Prompt. (An “MS-DOS Prompt” dialog box shows a yellow warning-style triangle, and states, “There is not enough memory available to run this program.” “Quit one or more programs, and then try again.” [OK])

If there are further problems, consider either removing MaxPhysPage, or reducing the amount of memory down to 1.5 GB. If that doesn't work, try reducing the amount of memory down to 1GB.

Handling the license agreement

At this point, registration information may be entered even before the GUI is started. The precise results may vary based on what installation media is being used. A batch file such as the following can accomplish this:

echo REGEDIT4 > w98prdid.reg
echo. >> w98prdid.reg
echo [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion] >> w98prdid.reg
echo "RegisteredOwner"="UserName" >> w98prdid.reg
echo "RegisteredOrganization"="" >> w98prdid.reg
echo "ProductId"="00000-OEM-0000000-00000" >> w98prdid.reg
echo "ProductName"="Microsoft Windows 98" >> w98prdid.reg
echo "ProductKey"="THISR-EGIST-RATIO-NCODE-FALSE" >> w98prdid.reg
echo "DigitalProductId"=hex:a4,00,00,00,03,00,00,00,30,30,30,30,30,2d,4f,45,4d,2d,\ >> w98prdid.reg
echo   30,30,30,30,30,30,30,2d,30,30,30,30,30,00,03,00,00,00,30,30,30,2d,30,30,30,\ >> w98prdid.reg
echo   30,30,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,\ >> w98prdid.reg
echo   00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,\ >> w98prdid.reg
echo   00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,\ >> w98prdid.reg
echo   00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,\ >> w98prdid.reg
echo   00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00 >> w98prdid.reg
RegEdit w98prdid.reg

The above is meant to be customized. (The most clear example is the ProductKey, which is meant to communicate the message: “This Registration Code [is] False”.)

With at least one version of Windows 98 Second Edition that had been bundled with a new computer, the installation CD's Setup.exe process results in an operating system that may accept nearly any value, seemingly performing no checks for the authenticity of the Product Key. Yet, other installation CDs may perform some checks, so that using this method does not prevent the software from performing some checks on the authenticity of the Product Key.

[#msd7mcdx]: Supporting CD-ROM drives in MS-DOS 7.1 (part of Microsoft Windows 98 (Second Edition))
[#oakcdrom]: The memory hog: Using OakCDROM.SYS

The following might help a CD-ROM drive to be better supported by Windows 98, and is unlikely to cause substantial troubles in the short term. (This may cause a reduction in Conventional Memory, although such memory usage can be improved after other critical setup gets completed. Meanwhile, driver installation may be easier if the CD-ROM's installation files are available. That may be done by copying the files to the hard drive, or having the CD-ROM be accessible.)

Making sure the file exists

If the /ie command switch caused that file to not exist, options may include copying the file from the floppy image when booting from the CD, or extracting it from the CD using something like:

C:
Extract /A D:\Win98\Base4.Cab OakCDROM.SYS

Either such approach may require that the CD-ROM drive currently works, so rebooting and booting off of the CD, and selecting to use CD-ROM support, may be needed. After booting like that, a command such as the following may work:

C:
D:\Win98\Extract /A D:\Win98\Base4.Cab OakCDROM.SYS
Using the OakCDROM.SYS CD driver

Make sure to customize this to the path that Microsoft Windows was installed to.

dir /a C:\CONFIG*.*
copy C:\CONFIG.SYS .\CONFIGSY.001
echo DEVICEHIGH=%winbootdir%\Command\EBD\OakCDROM.SYS /D:OEMCD001 >> C:\CONFIG.SYS

MSCDEX may need the device name that is used by the driver. If the device name is not specified in the CONFIG.SYS file, this particular driver uses a default device name of 12345678 (so, equivilent to saying /D:12345678). (The /D:OEMCD001 name, in this documentation, is simply what is used by an OEM CD of Windows 98 Second Edition.)

Handling the CD Extensions
dir /a C:\Auto*.*
copy C:\AutoExec.Bat .\AutoExec.001
echo @Echo Off >> C:\AutoExec.Bat
echo MSCDEX /D:OEMCD001 >> C:\AutoExec.Bat

Note: Some people don't much care for using MSCDEX. If a 32-bit driver from Microsoft Windows will successfully detect the CD, then that's great. However, some drives might not be supported by the 32-bit drivers bundled with Microsoft Windows, but may show up with MSCDEX. In the short term, if the installation files have not been copied onto a local hard drive, then it may be better to just make sure that the drive is visible to the Microsoft Windows GUI, even if MSCDEX is used, so that the drive is available if/when it is needed for drivers. Performance optimization (possibly involving using other drivers) can be done at a later time.

Better options

If the desire is just to do things very simply, and if a lack of sufficient “conventional memory” is not expected to be an issue in the short term, then these better options can certainly be delayed until later. In that case, using the bundled software including OakCDROM.Sys might just be more convenient in the short term. However, do know that there are generally better options that do exist.

The software to support CD-ROM drives, and several other software components that support hardware (drivers), can often be able to be better supported by using some superior drivers that the Internet community has developed. See: DOS Memory: “Using awesome drivres” section. Namely, TEAC or VIDE are known to use up low memory. There is likely no compelling reason why this needs to be done before many of the other tasks, but if the superior drivers are just as handy then using one of them may be more sensible than starting to use the OakCDROM.Sys file.

Using CD extentions other than MSCDEX may work perfectly to access data, although playing CD Audio might not work as well with some drives. So, experimentation might or might not lead to additional savings in memory.

Causing the GUI to not auto-load except via Batch

Note that although this does work fine with Windows 95, Windows 98 (both the original release and also Windows 98 Second Edition), Windows ME was designed to run the GUI automatically. (The hyperlinked section provides some solutions that involves either using commonly trusted third party code or applying some less well understood modifications to Microsoft's initial files.) For the twentieth century operating systems in the Win9x family, this process works quite nicely.

Back up the \MSDOS.SYS file. Then, either change the file's BootGUI line, or download a far more commented version (TOOGAM's Software Archive: MS-DOS information “Specific Upgrades” section, “TOOGAM's unofficial Winboot.ini). However, if using a downloaded version, make sure that the values of the [Paths] are all entirely correct. Also, if using a downloaded version of the file, probably less critically, make sure that the WinVer line is correct.

First, locate what files might pre-exist, so that a suitable backup file can be made.

C:\>attrib C:\MSDOS*.*
C:\>attrib C:\WINB*.*
C:\>attrib MSDOS.SYS
     SHR     MSDOS.SYS     C:\MSDOS.SYS

C:\>attrib -s -h -r MSDOS.SYS

C:\>copy C:\MSDOS.SYS .\MSDOSSYS.001
C:\>EDIT MSDOS.SYS

If auto-loading of Microsoft Windows is desired, code such as the following can be used:

Dir \AutoExec.Bat
If Exist \AutoExec.Bat Copy \AutoExec.Bat \AutoExec.001
echo @Echo Off >> \AutoExec.Bat
echo Press a standard/regular key to enter the graphical user interface. >> \AutoExec.Bat
echo Pause >> \AutoExec.Bat
echo Win.com >> \AutoExec.Bat
Backing up the initial splash screen

There's likely no real need to do this, but now may be the convenient way to do that.

dir C:\Logo*.*
copy C:\Logo.Sys C:\LogoSys.001

Side notes about the logo: PC Magazine has released a program called LogoMania which claims support for an animated logo. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,26968,00.asp

Back up the hard drive?

So far, the compelling decisions made have been:

  • If this is a virtual machine, how big to make the hard drive
  • Where to install Microsoft Windows onto
  • What software to install by default (not a real big deal)
  • Performing some necessary maintenance tasks so that Microsoft Windows will run properly.

If there are any thoughts about needing more copies, especially if the copies might be run on different hardware (such as a different virtual machine software product, which may emulate different hardware), then none of the actions taken are strongly dependent on what kind of hardware is being used. That is about to change, so backing up the hard drive now may be a good time to perform that task. Before doing any such thing with a hard drive image file, be sure to the virtual machine is “off”. (Quit the virtual machine software.)

If the image is being stored in QCOW(2) format, compressing a hard drive image may be fairly painless to do at this time. (However, it would make more sense to do that after the operating system installation. Compressing the images both times (after the operating system is installed more fully, and also at this point) may not be too bad of an idea.

For example: QEMU disk image compression:

time qemu-img convert -c -f qcow2 -O qcow2 win98sec.qc2 win98sec-ready-for-boot-two.qc2
cp win98sec-ready-for-boot-two.qc2 win98sec.qc2

For example: child disk creation provides a syntax similar to this for QCOW2 images:

mv win98sec.qc2 win98sec-ready-for-boot-two-backup.qc2
time qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b win98sec-ready-for-boot-two.qc2 win98sec.qc2

Note that this is intentionally naming the child to use the same name as what the parent was using. This way, the virtual machine configuration/script doesn't need to be updated to point at a new filename.

If anything was done incorrectly (such as not using the example command to compress a file before using the example command for a child image), don't immediately panic too badly. Just look at what files exist. If there are concerns, copy them to another folder. (The primary reason the example showed using mv instead of rm was to minimize the likelihood of accidentally erasing the only copy fo the data.)

Continuing setup
[#w98membt]: Memory quantity issue

Upon trying to enter the GUI, Microsoft Windows 98 might reboot or might provide a quite misleading message:

Insufficient memory to initialize Windows.

Quit one or more memory-resident programs or remove unnecessary
utilities from your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files, and restart
your computer.

Press any key to continue...

There's an invisible counter of approximately 30 seconds. If no key is pressed, then the system will shut off. If most keys are pressed, then the system will shut off. However, pressing Ctrl-C will go to the following screen:

You can now safely turn off your computer.

If you want to restart your computer, press CTRL+ALT+DEL.

C:>_

Okay, now, here's the tricky thing: the problem is actually too MUCH memory. This is just one problem that can be cuased by having too much RAM. Another is that, once the system is more fully installed, the system may reboot shortly after the graphical user interface is started (before the user has any real chance to effectively use it). So, this needs to get rectified.

The good news is that this can be rectified as easily as adding a couple of lines to a text file. (Other options can include removing RAM, or perhaps starting Setup with /im. However, the specified command line switch might not remove all problems.) For the best resolution, see: limiting Win98's RAM.

Hardware detection

Microsoft Windows will check for some hardware. If the /p g=3 (or equivilent) command line parameters were specified, the output will be fairly informative. (There is also a visible “Cancel” button, which should NOT be pressed!) This style of output is a bit less boring than not seeing the verbose output.

Some examples of hardware that get checked for:

Ssytem Bus Programmable ...? System board? Keyboard Dockable Novell/Anthem ... Network Adapter? Network Adapter novell/Anthem ... Network Adapter? Zenith Cabletron Thomas Conrad Novell NE2000 Network Adapater? Standard Floppy Controller Serial Mouse Gameport Joystick Mitsumi CD-ROM Drive

Perhaps these devices are similar to what are listed in: Microsoft Device IDs (devids.txt) file. (Device IDs.)

Note: If setup freezes when locking up hardware, a solution may be to try again using /p a when running SETUP.EXE. If that fails, try using /p b. (These are just some ideas, fairly untested at the time of this writing. Yes, this might mean re-starting the operating system installation.) See KB 186111: Description of the Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me Setup Switches for further details.

Setting the Date/Time Properties

Windows 98 will pause installation, with an estimated 10 minutes left, to ask the user for clarification about time settings (the current time, the current date, the Time zone being used, and whether to be using daylight savings time). Note that the two digit number next to the month is meant to represent the year.

After pressing Enter, there may be a ten minute wait or so, but then the system should reboot automatically.

After another reboot

The first time, Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition will ask for a password. The screen notes, “Tip: If you don't enter a password, you won't get this prompt again at startup.”

Once again, this prompt holds up the installation, and then after some user input, another wait should be expected.

The system may then notice some new hardware being found (which was apparently not noticed earlier in the installation phase, when hardware was being detected), and then a window lets the user know that System Settings are updated. Then, after a brief pause showing just a blank screen, another window lets the user know that System Settings are updated (again).

Post-installation tasks
[#w98insfl]: Checking for access to the CD's installation files

Check if the CD-ROM drive is supported. The easiest ways to do that are likely to do one of the following:

  • Open up the “My Computer” icon on the desktop
  • From the Start button, choose Programs, and then Windows Explorer
  • Access the Context menu of the Start button, and choose Explore.

If the CD's files are not installed, then other types of drivers may be best to NOT install until the CD's contents are accessible. Either get the CD visible in the GUI (see directions for enabling OakCDROM.Sys, and then reboot), or copy the CD's \Win98\ directory to a location that is visible to the GUI.

Using the desired hardware platform
[#w98pcidr]: PCI Driver support in Windows 98 Second Edition)

(These notes were based off of Windows 98 Second Edition, running on a virtual machine. This may or might not be rather equivilent to an experience using Microsoft Windows 98 (First Edition).)

(Perhaps there is a slicker way of doing this? From reading MS KB Q186111 (in the section about “/p j”), it looks like there may be a BIOS list that can be updated. Perhaps having Windows 98 recognize that a BIOS is a “Plug and Play”(-compatible) BIOS might be enough for the PCI drivers to get triggered rather automatically.)

As a side note, installing these drivers (to add support for PCI) may cause Windows 98 to use some later versions of a number of other drivers as well. (This is probably not a bad thing, but is worth noting since this involves changing so many of the quite basic drivers.) Users of QEMU can be glad that support for the QEMU USB Tablet (virtual device) can be detected after going through this process.

Because this process may involve rebooting the system, and then asking for a CD (before the multi-user system allows the user to easily create a new DOS prompt), make sure the installation files are readily available. If they are not, take care of this before proceeding.

To clarify: There is a potentially tricky part where Windows may modify the startup files and effectively disable support for the CD-ROM drives. Then Windows may want to access the data on the installation CD drives. If things are handled less than perfectly, this can easily lead to a point where Windows wants access to a file that is unavailable. An easy way to avoid that problem is to copy the contents of the CD's main installation directory, so those files are stored on an internal “hard drive”. (What's really needed are the \WIN98\*.CAB files. On a Win98SE CD, this was found to take a bit under 128MB.)

To add support for these PCI drivers, go to Device Manager. Under “System devices”, find the icon that says “Plug and Play BIOS”. (It very well might be the only device in the whole computer that has a warning icon next to it.) Choose the Properties button, and then on the Driver tab, use the “Update Driver...” button. Press “Next >” on the first (informational) screen, and then choose “Display a list of all the drivers in a specific location, so you can select the driver you want.” Choose to “Show all hardware.” Under “(Standard system devices)”, choose “PCI bus”. (On a side note: some of the other hardware listed may be about to get automatically updated as part of the process of supporting the “PCI bus”.) Specify “Yes” to proceed past the warning that Microsoft Windows likes to display whenever switching to a driver that is not marked as being 100% fully compatible with the same hardware as the driver that was previously being used. The OS will note which file contains the “PCI bus” driver, which is the the %windir%\INF\MACHINE.INF file. Choose “Next >” and then “Finish”. Like many driver changes, the computer will then want to reboot. (This should probably be done before installing any other hardware drivers. If ready, go ahead and say Yes.)

Note: A lot of the remaining documentation for this process is based on working with Windows 98 Second Edition on a Qemu virtual machine. Details may vary when other (virtual or physical) hardware gets used, and/or when a different operating systems is used.

After the reboot, Windows 98 Second Edition will detect a “PCI Host Bridge”. Go ahead and just have Windows 98 Second Edition search for the best driver to use. (Selecting the alternative, of specifying hardware, will just show the same hardware that was available for replacing the BIOS. That does not seem to help any, so it is best to search for the best driver.)

When asked about where to search, you can just leave all of the checkboxes blank. Windows 98 Second Edition will find data in the file that it stored at %windir%\INF\MACHINE2.INF during the operating system's installation.) On a Qemu machine, this may be detected as an “Intel 82441FX Pentium(r) Pro Processor to PCI bridge”.

Repeat for the “PCI ISA Bridge” (detected on Qemu as “Intel 82371SB PCI to ISA bridge”). (Trying the “Display a list of all drivers” may show no compatible hardware.) Do proceed to search for the best driver to use. Note that this may show a progress bar, which would indicate that installation files may be used. The driver may come from the %windir%\INF\MACHINE2.INF file.

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “IO read data port for ISA Plug and Play enumerator”. Fortunately, this hardware and some other detected hardware can all be taken care of without asking the user any questions, and this generally works successfully.

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “IRQ Holder for PCI Steering”.

Windows 98 will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “IRQ Holder for PCI Steering”. Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “IRQ Holder for PCI Steering” (again). (Hmm... is that really *three*?)

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find a “PCI IDE Controller”. For this device, it my be good to choose an alternative driver. Although Windows may detect a fairly specific driver (e.g. a Qemu virtual machine in Win98SE may reveal %winbootdir%\INF\MSHDC.INF's driver for an “Intel 82371SB PCI Bus Master IDE Controller [ 4-23-1999]”), a more compatible option may be available (such as Win98SE's “Standard Dual PCI IDE Controller [ 4-23-1999]”). To reduce the likelihood of problems, trying the more compatible/standard driver (e.g. “Standard Dual PCI IDE Controller”) is recommended. (If slowness is detected, then flipping to a more specific driver will be an option later. For now, though, installing the compatible driver will maximize the likelihood of the Windows installation being functional.)

To do this, tell Windows what to do. (It does not really matter if “Search for the best driver for your device. (Recommended)” or “Display a list of all the drivers in a specific location, so you can select the driver you want.” is chosen.) Either choice will then lead to an ability to select the desired driver.

How to choose the driver after searching for the best driver(s)

A choice can be made, so go ahead and move the radio button down to “One of the other drivers.”. (At this point, it is not possible to continue since a driver has not yet been chosen. Rather than greying out the “Next >” button, Microsoft simply made Windows 98 so that if the “Next >” is pressed, an error message appears.) Press Alt-V to “View List...” Now that the options have been reviewed, it is time to make a decision. If this operating system is certain to continue to use the Qemu software, then it may be safe to go ahead and choose to use The updated driver (Recommended)”. Otherwise, choosing “One of the other drivers.” and then go with the compatible/standard variable (e.g. from %winbootdir%\INF\MSHDC.INF's “Standard Dual PCI IDE Controller”).

How to select the driver after choosing to display the available drivers

Leaving the screen on “Show compatible hardware.” is likely to work. Choose the driver that sounds more compatible/generic/standard, such as the one that may start with a name of “Standard Dual PCI IDE Controller” (and then contain a date).

Another computer restart will be requested.

Windows 98 will want to locate drivers for a “PCI Universal Serial Bus” (more well known as USB). Once again, those who wish to seek high compatibility may decide to pass on the more optimized “Intel 82371SB PCI to USB Universal Host Controller”, choosing instead to use %winbootdir%\INF\USB.INF's “Standard Universal PCI to USB Host Controller”.

Win98SE will then look for PCI Bridge and find: %windir%\INF\MACHINE2.INF's Intel 82371EB Power Management Controller (and not find other options). As there are no other options, just continue.

If “ -vga cirrus” was used when starting Qemu, then Win98SE will then look for “PCI VGA-Compatible Display Adapater” and find: %windir%\INF\DXCIRRUS.INF's Cirrus Logic 5446 PCI

Then, the computer will indicate that it is time for another restart.

Be sure to drop to the command prompt before this reboot. Check the Config.Sys and AutoExec.bat. See if the CD driver is being loaded, even if that driver had loaded successfully before. It might not be getting loaded at this point in the process: It might have been REM'ed out. If that happened, uncomment the driver and reboot.

This time, make sure the CD-ROM drive is ready. (Make sure that MSCDEX is successfully supporting the drive before the GUI is loaded.)

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “Primary IDE controller (daul fifo)”. Fortunately, this hardware and some other detected hardware can all be taken care of without asking the user any questions, and this generally works successfully.

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “Secondary IDE controller (daul fifo)”. Fortunately, this hardware and some other detected hardware can all be taken care of without asking the user any questions, and this generally works successfully.

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “Unknown Device”, which will happen to be an “USB Root Hub”. Fortunately, this hardware and some other detected hardware can all be taken care of without asking the user any questions, and this generally works successfully.

Windows 98 Second Edition will then find an “PCI Ethernet Controller”. QEmu may refer to this as a “Realtek RTL8029(AS) PCI Ethernet NIC” (found from the %windir%\INF\NETRT.INF file). Proceeding successfully will need access to the CD installation files. The CD-ROM will then be requested for choosusr.dll (trying to make %winbootdir%\SYSTEM\choosusr.dll=NET7.CAB)

Perhaps after another reboot:

On a Qemu machine which is using the USB tablet, Windows 98 Second Edition will then find a “QEMU USB Tablet”, which will then be classified as being a “USB Human Interface Device”. (Hmm, that is interesting, as Win98SE certainly did not have any drivers that recognized QEMU. The name must have been detected, rather than being hard coded as part of Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition.) The driver will be from the %windir%\INF\HIDDEV.INF file.

Dealing with problems
Network driver files were not found during the driver installation

If Windows 98 believes that it has located a driver, but then cannot locate all of the driver files, then the driver installation may be only partially completed. This can be quite annoying when the TCP/IP support is not fully installed.

If the cabinet file is not available, choosing “Skip file” several times may appear to work in the short term, although support for the hardware is not likely to work. Canceling the installation seems to have the same impact. Worse (whether having skipped the file or cancelled), when the GUI is restarted, there are likely to be some error messages that require user interaction. It might be better to just reboot?

Symptoms may refer to SYSTEM.INI referencing vredir.vxd and similarly referencing dfs.vxd and maybe another file as well. Then, after the system switches into graphical mode, an error message may appear: [Windows Networking error message: Unable to load the dynamic link library: msnp32.dll (cannot find the file) (the following feature is not available: Microsoft Network). Each of these error messages requires pressing a key in order to be able to boot up the screen, so obviously they will quickly become extremely undesirable. Furthermore, they are an indication that networking is not functinoal.

If this situation occurs, first, make sure that the installation files can be found. (See \Win98\ installation files and, if needed, getting (Microsoft) CD Extensions working.)

Once that is resolved, the remaining steps to fix this situation are relatively simple to perform (although perhaps perplexing to initially figure out what to do). Check out what Device Manager has to say about the NIC. If the driver installation was Cancelled (pushing the “Cancel” button instead of the “Skip file” button), there may be an option to Re-install the driver. Although that won't entirely fix the situation, go ahead and perform that option if the option seems to exist. Reboot when requested. The error messages probably have not gone away, but proceed to load up the GUI.

Go to the Control Panel's Network applet. Determine what network components are installed. The list might look something like this:

  • Client: “Microsoft Family Logon”
  • Perhaps also: Client: “Client for Microsoft Networks”
  • Adapater: “Dial-Up Adapter”
  • Perhaps also both “Dial-Up Adapter #2 (VPN Support)” and “Microsoft Virtual Private Network Adapater”
  • Perhaps: Adapter: an adapter that actually reflects a real and physical NIC
  • Perhaps: Protocol: “NDISWAN -> Microsoft Virtual Private Networking Adapter” (if VPN support had been installed)
  • Protocols: “TCP/IP -> Dial-UP Adapter”
  • Perhaps: Protocol: “TCP/IP -> Dial-Up Adapater #2 (VPN Support)” (if VPN support had been installed)
  • Protocol: “TCP/IP -> ” for every physical NIC adapter. (This does not include the “Microsoft Virtual Private Networking Adapter.”)

Locate all TCP/IP -> (name of the NIC), and Remove support. Do this even for the adapters that are not physical, such as the “TCP/IP -> Dial-UP Adapter”. The goal is to not have *any* TCP/IP, because that will result in Windows deciding that TCP/IP needs to be installed (which will fix the problem).

Optionally: If this situation was caused when a NIC's drivers were partially added, remove the NIC from this Control Panel applet (with the plan being that the drivers will then be re-installed). Doing so might trigger the Windows operating system to notice the device as a new device, and do some (re-)installation rather automatically. (Some old instructions: Then remove the device (this had been done from Device Manager, but perhaps can just as effectively be done from the protocol?). (Perhaps instead of rebooting, go to Add Hardware Wizard to reduce the number of reboots by one?))

Say “Yes” to the note about the network not being complete.

(When this was being documented, an attempt to open the Network Control panel was made. However, right at that same time, a dialog box appeared. It is not clear whether the dialog box was caused by the user's input.)

The computer will want to restart. Go ahead and Restart.

This may have revealed that the vredir.vxd and msnp32.dll errors have now gone away, but the dfs.vxd error might still be remaining.

Head back to the Network Control Panel applet. Check to see if TCP/IP is being used. (It won't be, unless it has been re-installed automatically after the system rebooted.) If TCP/IP is not being shown, Add the Protocol called TCP/IP. Also, if appropriate, re-add the Client called “Microsoft Family Logon”.

That should re-install the missing file(s). A reboot will be requested. Since this involved a *.vxd file specified by %winbootdir%\SYSTEM.INI, then the reboot probably is actually needed for things to take the full desired effect.

At this point, things should be resolved. Following are simply some scratch notes taken during an actual incident of this nature. (It got resolved successfully, by following the instructions noted.)

Some progress might be obtainable by using %winbootdir%\SYSTEM, but eventually the CD will be needed. Choose \Win98 on the CD drive, or a location on the hard drive where the CAB files have been copied.

Either select D:\Win98 or %winbootdir%\SYSTEM also skip for inetmib1dll msab32.dll msnet32.dll msnp32.dll mspp32.dll networks pmspl.dll protocol services snmpapi.dll vld32.dll winpopup.cnt from NET8.CAB: arp.exe ftp.exe hosts.sam ipconfig.exe lmhosts.sam lmscript.exe lmscript.pil locproxy.exe locprxy2.exe nbtstat.exe net.exe net.msg neth.msg netstat.exe ping.exe route.exe Rsvp.exe telnet.exe telnet.hlp tracert.exe winipcfg.exe winpopup.exe winpopup.hlp wsasrv.exe From NET9: afvxd.vxd dfs.vxd filesec.vxd mssp.vxd ndis.vxd ndis2sup.vxd ndiswmi.sys rtl8029.sys (probably specific for just the driver) vnetbios.vxd vnetsup.vxd vredir.vxd NET10: wshtcp.vxd wsock.vxd wsoc2.vxd realtek RTL8029(AS) PCI Ethernet NIC

Active Desktop gets enabled (causing a blue background)

This may basically self-enable, possibly because the background image gets set to “Windows 98”. Go to Display Properties (by right-clicking the background and choosing Properties, which just runs the Control Panel applet) and go to the tab called “Web”. Uncheck View my Active Desktop as a web page”.

This may be able to be prevented by going to HKLM\Software\Microsoft\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer and making a “Binary Value” called “NoActiveDesktop” with data of 01 00 00 00, according to Actually, it looks like the path might be under \Software\Microsoft\Widnows\CurrentVersion\Explorer See: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc728139%28v=ws.10%29.aspx http://www.thebzone.com/2009/10/disable-active-desktop-in-windows-98/ http://www.experts-exchange.com/OS/Microsoft_Operating_Systems/Windows/XP/Q_23856764.html

Follow-up tasks

Check the Device Manager for duplicate devices. For instance, a Qemu machine started with -vga cirrus might have both a “Cirrus Logic” and also a “Cirrus Logic 5446 PCI”, with the latter having a warning symbol because it is not finding a supported free I/O address. If something like this happens, check whether the older driver will be easy to add in case there is ever a need (such as if the operating system ever got migrated to a physical machine that used such a card). To do this, first figure out the name of the old device. Then, go to the newer-style (PCI) driver and, on the Driver tab, choose to “Udate Driver...”. Display a list of all drivers, and Show all hardware. If the name of the old device shows up, then it should be easy to re-add in case there are any troubles. Cancel out of the Update Device Driver Wizard and the Properties of the new device. If the old driver looks like it will be easy to re-add, fix the problem by removing the non-PCI device. (Or Disable it from the current hardware profile, if that's an option, or else Remove it from the hardware profile?)

Getting networking functional

This is likely one of the highest priority items to get a full experience. The other major item, which is also worth addressing soon, is to up the display resolution. However, the most convenient way to get optimized graphic drivers might be to use the network, so this is mentioned first.

If the NIC does not exist in Device Manager

[No NICs installed (Win98SE)], [No NICs installed (Win98SE)]

[#qmnicmdl]: Qemu-specific directions: NIC model

If Qemu, try specifying a card type. The list of cards of supported cards can be seen if Qemu sees a command line of: “ qemu -net nic,model=? ”. Note that in Unix, if there is a single-character filename in the current directory, the potential wildcard character may need to be escaped. (In other words, in most Unix shells it is generally safer to run the following instead: “ qemu -net nic,model=\?

virtio

Using ,model=virtio is probably best *if* virtio is supported by both QEmu and the host environment. However, virtio is NOT always supported, so using a different option may be needed.

In fact, at the time of this writing, the usual preferred operating system of the author of this text (OpenBSD) has not had support for virtio. As a result, this guide is not substantially detailed on using virtio.

(Intel) E1000

This may be the choice that offers the next best performance, although drivers will need to be obtained. So, this may be the best long term solution, but until those drivers get obtained, another solution may be needed. If drivers are not available yet, either grab drivers on the physical machine and then mount the FAT drive and copy the drivers to the drive, or try one of the other card types.

TOOGAM's software archive: Network drivers has a section related to Intel circuitry. Additional (and possibly untested) resources might include: Intel drivers for Windows ME, Lenovo drivers

If drivers are expected to be available, make sure QEmu is started with ,model=e1000 when specifying the NIC.

(This card has been known to be referenced as an Intel E-1000. However, Intel seems to refer to it as E1000 or e1000.)

Others

One method to use only the software bundled with the operating system, without requring any bits other than those which come from the original installation CD, may be to use ,model=ne2k_pci. However, that won't be detected until the PCI drivers are installed. See Windows 98 PCI Drivers.

Another option is to use ,model=ne2k_isa for the ISA variation. This does work, although there are a couple of items to note. First, by not going with the route of using a PCI-based system, the Qemu display tablet might not be detected, so using the mouse may continue to be painful. (Therefore, the most recommended process is to use ,model=ne2k_pci and Windows 98 PCI Drivers.) Second, the process may involve seeing an [“Add New Hardware Wizard” screen asking for resources of an NE2000 Compatible card]. Upon seeing such a screen, flip the “Interrupt (IRQ)” so it does NOT conflict with COM2/COM4 (IRQ3), nor any other device (any IRQ showing an asterisk). Experience has shown that IRQ9/2 may be a good choice. (Basically, IRQ2 is effectively the same as IRQ9, due to IRQ2's cascading and using IRQ9 for compatibility. This is discussed more: IRQ.) In comparison, booting QEMU into OpenBSD has been known to detect such a card at IRQ 11. The default I/O address of #300 - 31F may work, although changing the IRQ setting to either IRQ 9/2 or IRQ 11, rather than IRQ3, may be better. (Side note related to these I/O addresses: Using an I/O address of #300 is what OpenBSD would refer to as an “ne1” device: ne0 is 0x240 and ne2 is 0x280. Other I/O addresses end up being given an interface name of ne3 or higher.) After confirming these settings, a reboot will be needed. (The settings may be adjusted later by viewing the “Resources” tab on the card's “Properties” page in “Device Manager”.)

Another option might be to use ,model=rtl8193. However, it does appear that using this type of card will require added drivers, making this card no more attractive than the E1000. The “Realtek RTL8019 PnP LAN adapater or compatible” driver bundled with Win98SE does NOT seem to work. (That was based on the “Add New Hardware Wizard”'s guesses: Input/Output Range 240-25F, IRQ 11. Note that such an I/O address is commonly viewed as an address to use for a secondary Sound Blaster (or compatible) sound card.)

Additional configuration
Problems

Once the Internet can be reached, there will likely be some desire to add more software. A very popular method is to use a bundled web browser, which would be Microsoft Internet Explorer. There is, after all, a very nice-looking inviting Microsoft Internet Explorer icon in the Quick Launch toolbar near the Start Menu that is initially found in the lower-left corner of the screen. Or, for those who are used to Windows 95 and haven't yet adapter to use the Quick Launch section, perhaps the Start button's Programs menu will have an Internet Explorer icon that gets used. Either icon initially looks like an easy answer... until an attempt to use Microsoft Internet Explorer reveals the horror: [Welcome to MSN Internet Access!]

The most obvious alternative to the Microsoft Internet Explorer icons, and which is readily available bundled with the operating system, is to use FTP. However, the FTP protocol will often not play as well with common modern Internet security measures (namely firewalling/NAT), which has been a key reason to lead to an overall worldwide reduction in the use of FTP servers.

Run the Internet Connection Wizard. Some ways to get to that: “Connect to the Internet” from the initial Welcome screen. Get to Internet Options from either Settings, Control Panel, or via MS IE's Tools, Internet Options. Go to the “Connections” tab, and choose “Setup...”

For modern Internet connections (broadband; anything using Ethernet/Wi-Fi/USB; anything other than dial-up POTS Internet access), the selection to choose will generally be “I want to set up my Internet connection manually, or I want to connect through a local area network (LAN).” AutoDetect proxy is fine. The general recommendation is to not bother with setting up mail.

Regarding E-Mail: the reason for this recommendation is that Outlook Express setup is even desirable at all, then the desirable time to do so may be after networking is confirmed to be functional. More details on how to set up Outlook Express may or may not be available from this resource. If they are, then such details will likely be in the section about Outlook Express. There are also other E-Mail software solutions that may work with Windows 98. (At very least, there was likely a version of Mozilla Thunderbird, and Netscape Communicator. Perhaps there was also SeaMonkey?) E-Mail User Agent (MUA) list client-side E-Mail software (which likely includes some programs which might not be easily available to run directly from Windows 98).

Improving networking

Note to users of the QEMU virtual machine: Once networking is functional with one network card, consider whether another type of NIC may be nicer. Specifically, if using a 100mbps card, consider using that to download the drivers for the Intel card, and see about using gigabit.

Display Driver

If using VGA, try changing the drivers. If there is a driver that targets a rather specific to a set of video cards, that is often the best bet for superior performance. Otherwise, changing to the bundled “Super VGA” will often work. Another option may be to download some fairly generic drivers: TOOGAM's Software Archive: video drivers: VESA support in Win9x refers to VBEmp.

Note that the VBEmp video driver may help to provide superior resolution, but with some notable drawbacks. First, there is minimal or no DirectX support (including no Direct3D support), and some tasks can result in extremely slow video updates. Scrolling, specifically, may be the most common task that goes very slow when VBEmp is being used.

Using the CD's installation files
If the CD hasn't been copied yet, before putting the CD away, consider whether there is anything on the CD that is desirable. For instance, Win98SE may come with software to support Fax hardware, and Personal Web Server.
Enhancements

In general, using JP Software's 4DOS (which has now become freeware and had its source code released) is recommended. (This is especially true for Windows ME users who may want to run DOS without needing to go to the GUI.) See: TOOGAM's software archive: 4DOS.

Users of DOS programs may also want to check out DOS memory section for details about superior drivers, and perhaps other user interface enhancements (mentioned by TOOGAM's software archive).

As a recommendation that applies to way more than Windows 98 Second Edition, installing common software is part of the more general guide to setting up an installed operating system.

Data compression/Backup
Recommendations for users of virtual machines that support compressed disk images (e.g. QEMU)

If speed is not a concern, users of QEMU may want to compress the disk image. (If speed is a concern, skip these instructions and check out the instructions for other users.) Doing so will create a new disk image file. If there is no compelling need to keep the machine up/online, then the first step (to make this not only safe for data and stability, but also thorough/easy) will be to shut down the virtual machine, so that its disk file may be adequately accessed. It is recommended to then move the old image file (as a backup). Then, either create a child image, or make a copy of the new compressed disk image file, and have the new image file use the old filename. This should result in a compressed copy which has a new filename and which will not be altered going forward. Backing up that file, and perhaps altering permissions (to make sure that it is not accidentally written to), may be good things to do. Run the virtual machine again to test the new image. If it works (which it should, if no error had been made), then the old uncompressed copy is likely worthless.

Recommendations for other users

Making a backup of the system is recommended. (If the system is going to be around for quite a while, then applying data compression to that backup may be a good idea. This is not necessarily suggesting the use of data compression that is internal to a virtual machine software. Simply using data compression, on an image of the hard drive, may be beneficial (less wasteful of disk space, and quite potentially faster to deal with the data after it has been compressed) for all sorts of users that are not already compressing the image's data in some fashion. (This may apply to users of virtual machines, and any user who installs the data onto a physical system.)