Guide to CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI LX0-104

At the time of this writing, this file has fragments of HTML code. The HTML should best be considered quite broken. This is because a bunch of data just got migrated into this page, and the transition was simply not completed. This is expected to continue to be worked on.

(This guide may not be quite as up to date as the LX0-103 guide. That is likely to be changing soon, as noted here in April 2018 and re-affirmed in late May 2018 and late January 2019.)

(Some of this early commentary may be related to the A+...)

(Some of this page might still be more about LX0-103 ; further clean-up is expected to occur. At the time of this writing, such clean-up is expected to occur after some of the major content updates. Please understand that this page is not considered to be in a very completed state yet. However, enough progress was made that sharing this seemed more sensible than keeping the progress hidden from view.)

Compare also to: LPIC-1 Exam 101 Objectives Version 4.0 (Exam Code: 102-400).

Quite a bit of this still has remnants from the A+ ce, and will likely just have corresponding data copied over from the similar page related to LX0-103, which is a page that may be more up to date.

This is the guide to the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” exam. Besides simpler steps (like registering for an examination, and agreeing to required terms), the primary requirements to obtain the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” certification is passing multiple examinations. The LX0-104 can be one of those required exams (as long as the LX0-103 is another examination that is passed).

Status

As of late May 2018, this page has been getting some attention. It may still benefit from a bit more clean-up, especially including comparing it more closely to the LPIC-1 to double-check accuracy. Still, until the work does get completed, sharing it seemed sensible.)

A guided tutorial has been started. The current state of this tutorial may be seen by going to LX0-103 tutorial.

Certification Objectives

The information here comes from three main sources, all of which are very similar (and probably should be identical) -

  • CompTIA's objectives list of the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” certification examinations
  • LPI's main web site: LPIC-1 Linux Administrator objectives list for the LPIC-1 Exam 101 and LPIC-1 Exam 102
  • LPI's wiki: LPIC-1 Linux Administrator objectives list for the LPIC-1 Exam 101 and LPIC-1 Exam 102

Here are more details on where these can be found:

CompTIA Linux+ pbi LPI objectives

The certification examinations are offered in English, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. CompTIA has published the objectives in English, German, and Portuguese. Weirdly, CompTIA did not seem to offer the LX0-103 objectives in Spanish when this web page was created, despite an examination being offered int hat language.

English

“CompTIA Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Certification Exam Objectives: LX0-104 - English”, in a PDF file available at https://certification.comptia.org/docs/default-source/exam-objectives/comptia-linux-powered-by-lpi-(lx0-104)-aug-39-14-version.pdf (also stored in at http://CyberPillar.com/dirsver/1/mainsite/techns/induscer/comptia/linxplpi/lx0104/lx0104ob.zip in a ZIP file)

“CompTIA Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Certification Exam Objectives: LX0-104 - English”, in a PDF file available at https://certification.comptia.org/docs/default-source/exam-objectives/comptia-linux-powered-by-lpi-(lx0-104).pdf (also stored in at http://CyberPillar.com/dirsver/1/mainsite/techns/induscer/comptia/linxplpi/lx0104/lx0104oo.zip in a ZIP file). (Although this file may have a newer timestamp, the PDF file in this lx0104oo.zip file is a copy of what is suspected to be a slightly older file than the PDF file contained in lx0104ob.zip.)

German (“Deutsch”)

“CompTIA Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Certification Exam Objectives: LX0-103 - German”, in a PDF file available at https://certification.comptia.org/docs/default-source/exam-objectives/comptia-linux-powered-by-lpi-(lx0-103)-deu.pdf?sfvrsn=2 (also stored in at http://CyberPillar.com/dirsver/1/mainsite/techns/induscer/comptia/linxplpi/lx0103/lx0103od.zip in a ZIP file)

Portuguese

“CompTIA Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Certification Exam Objectives: LX0-103 - Portuguese”, in a PDF file available at https://certification.comptia.org/docs/default-source/exam-objectives/comptia-linux-powered-by-lpi-(lx0-103)-ptb.pdf?sfvrsn=2 (also stored in at http://CyberPillar.com/dirsver/1/mainsite/techns/induscer/comptia/linxplpi/lx0103/lx0103op.zip in a ZIP file)

LPIC-1 Main Site
LPI's main web site: LPIC-1 Linux Administrator objectives list for the LPIC-1 Exam 101 and LPIC-1 Exam 102
as well as the the LPIC-1 Linux Administrator Exam 102 Objectives web page at http://lpi.org/our-certifications/exam-102-objectives when that page said “Exam Objectives Version: Version 4.0” The relevant “Exam Code” for the “LPIC-1 Exam 102” was “102-400” (or “LX0-104”, according to the website, although since that is the exam code for the CompTIA exam, that is probably just a reference to CompTIA's examination rather than an examination administered by LPIC-1.)
LPI's Wiki
Content

LPI FAQ has stated, “The Linux+ exams offered by CompTIA are identical to LPI's LPIC-1 exams (the exam objectives are identical and the questions on the exams are exactly the same).”

That the LPIC-1 Linux Administrator Exam 102 Objectives web page said that the 102-400 and LX0-104 “exams are identical”.

Despite these claims, mnior differences in the objectives lists have been detected and noted here. Most of the objectives are completely identical.

Free LPIC-1

That the LPIC-1 Linux Administrator Exam 102 Objectives web page said that the 102-400 and LX0-104 “exams are identical; passing either exam will count as the 102 exam toward your LPIC-1”. The a “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” exam can be used to get the LPIC-1 Linux Administrator certification. The reverse is not true: If you take LPI's LPIC-1 Linux Administrator Exam 102, that examination does not count towards getting a certification from CompTIA's Linux+. Therefore, the only notable reason to bother taking LPI's LPIC-1 Exam 102 is if you have a chance to that that one for a reduced cost, but do not have the option to take the LX0-104 for the same reduced cost. That has been known to happen at some Linux conventions.

The recommended process is to sign up for a free “LPI ID” number (at https://cs.lpi.org/caf/Xamman/register ) before taking one of CompTIA's examinations for the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” certification.

More identical details

(The content in this section was once identical for the LX0-103 and LX0-104.)

This page is largely a list of the objectives for the examinations, as well as some brief commentary and/or references to material that may also cover the topics in more detail.

Unlike some of the other CompTIA certifications, there was no glossary (filled with acronyms) included in the publicly published PDF file for this certification's objectives.

See also: Providing professional services: Formal credentials: CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI.

(Current document status: This is not considered very completed yet, and is likely to be a lower priority than the the LX0-103 guide. Once that guide is in a more completed state, progress on this is likely to also be made.)

Both the LX0-103 and LX0-104 have the same passing score for “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” examinations: 500 (on a scale of 200-800)

Both the LX0-103 and LX0-104 have the same amount of questions, time, and published question type. 60 questions, 90 minutes. Although the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” objectives list noted “Type of questions” was “Multiple choice”, the author of this text seems to believe there may have been some “fill-in-the-blank” types of questions as well. (Although, that may have been based on the older LX0-101 and LX0-102 certification examinations.)

Multiple sources, merged

The short section names, e.g. “Install/Config X” by 106.1, were created by the author of this document. The actual section title, as seen in the Objectives List, show up in quotation marks at the start of the section. CompTIA's objectives list also included a period at the end of the section title (whereas LPI's objective list did not).

This document merges details provided by CompTIA with details provided by LPI.

For example, CompTIA had a list of “Domains”, while LPI called those same sections “Topics”. Both identified the first domain or topic as “105”. This page uses the term “Domain/Topic 105”. The percentage of points for this domain came from CompTIA. LPI's document didn't seem to contain that detail. However, LPI's document did provide a value called “Weight”, and a “Description”. These details from both CompTIA and LPI are conveniently merged together here.

LPI's Exam 105 had sections called “Key Knowledge Areas”. The items in those key knowledge areas also showed up on the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI objectives list (but just didn't call those “Key Knowledge Areas”).

Tips about content

LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 Summary: Version 2 to 3: section called “102 Change Summary” had a few bits of information that could be some useful tips:

  • A note in the section about Exam 101 noted, “Please keep in mind that the list of files, commands and terms in each objectives is a _partial_ list.” (This means there could be questions beyond just what shows up there.)
  • “NOTE ON WEIGHTING:  The weighting on all LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 exams has been normalised to 60. This means that each exam will be 60 questions long (unless you have "beta" questions for QA purposes; then it will be 75 questions).  This also means that a weighting of 3 on an objective indicates that there will be exactly 3 questions on the exam pertaining to that objective (again with the "beta" question caveat).”

Besides that, there may be some tips available in resources like this:

More info about this page
  • CSS has been added to the details of the objectives. This results in colors which some people may find less desirable. There are plans regarding how to turn off such colors. Such plans are not yet implemented. For now, the colors are helping the creator of this text to make sure that certain things have been getting categorized right.
    • Please keep in mind that at the time of this writing, currently March-May of 2018, this site's section has been getting heavily modified. If the current date is still within that time frame, additional updates happening soon are quite likely.
  • Partial lists
    • In the LPI main site's objectives list, each Topic's section (e.g., 101.1 Hardware) had "Topic Headers" of “Weight”, “Description”, “Key Knowledge Areas:”, and “Terms and Utilities”.
    • On LPI's wiki (e.g., LPIC-1 version 4 objectives, and LPIC-1 version 3.5 objectives), the phrase “The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities”
    • On the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” objectives list, the phrase “The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities” also showed up. However, on that list, it looked like a bullet point, quite similar to each of the objectives which had a bullet point.

    This felt like a discrepency between how LPI was presenting the informationa, and how CompTIA was presenting the information. On LPI's site, the phrase “Terms and Utilities” about “partial list” felt like a header that overshadowed the topics, while on CompTIA's list, the phrase that mentioned “terms, and utilities” looked like it was equal in weight as the topics.

    The decision of the author of this text was to treat this like what was seen on the LPI objectives list. (That just felt like it made the most sense.) The results of that decision does mean that the information here is presented a bit different than what is shown on the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” objectives list.

    However, the phrasing presented by CompTIA seemed more clear, so that was used instead of the briefer “Terms and Utilities” found on LPI's site. The phrasing by CompTIA was also seen on LPI's wiki site.

    Note that some information on LPI's wiki also validates that LPI considered such lists to be “partial”. (For instance, this has been seen on LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 Version 2 to 3 Summary: section 101, “Change Summary”: “Please keep in mind that the list of files, commands and terms in each objectives is a _partial_ list.”)

    (Although that detail is about section 101, it likely applies to section 102 as well.)

Guide to LX0-104

Objectives List / Charts / Info / Commentary / Resources

Domain/Topic 105 Shells/Scripts & Data Mgmt 17%

See: LX0-104 Domain/Topic 105: Shells, Scripting and Data Management (17%)

Domain 106 User Interfaces and Desktops 8%

See: LX0-104 Domain/Topic 106 User Interfaces and Desktops (8%)

Domain 107 Admin Tasks 20%

See: LX0-104 Domain/Topic 107 Administrative Tasks (20%)

Domain 108 Essential System Services

(17%)

See: LX0-104 Domain/Topic 108 Essential System Services (20%)

Domain 109 Networking Fundamentals 23%

See: LX0-104 Domain/Topic 109 Networking Fundamentals (23%)

Domain 110 Security 15%

See: LX0-104 Domain/Topic 110 Security (15%)

Domain/Topic 105 Shells/Scripts & Data Mgmt 17%

Topic 105: “Shells, Scripting and Data Management”

[#lx0104s51]: 105.1 : Shell Customizing

Section Title: “Customize and use the shell environment.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 4

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users’ needs. Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Set environment variables (e.g., PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell
(Commentary)
Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands
(Commentary)
Linux+ called it “BASH”, and LPI “Bash”, although bash may be really most appropriate...
Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts
(Commentary)
Set command search path with the proper directory
(Commentary)
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(Specific, provided example topics...)
Source
(Commentary)

LPI's objectives list correctly spells this as “source”. CompTIA had this misspelled this as “Source”.

There is no common command named “Source” with a capital S. (Consider that to be a misspelling in the objectives.) There is source in csh (called the “C shell”, sometimes pronounced as “seesh”), and there is the dot command (“. ”) in the Korn Shell (“ksh”, sometimes pronounced like “kaysh”)), and both source and dot (“. ”) in the Bourne Again Shell (“bash”.

Also known as the “dot” command. (Specifically: POSIX's documentation for the “dot” command.)

May be typically documented in shell documentation. (TOOGAM's answer to aturegano's SuperUser.com question about the ‘.’ command mentions this.) Run “echo $SHELL” to see the executable's filename, and see if there is a “man page” for that. (But, the “man page” is likely to be named after just the executable's filename, while $SHELL is likely to point to the executable file's entire path, so (manually) remove the path when typing the title for the hopefully-existing “man page”.)

/etc/bash.bashrc
(Commentary)

/etc/profile
(Commentary)

env
(Commentary)

(Also part of LX0-103 Section 103.1)

export
(Commentary)

(Also part of LX0-103 Section 103.1)

set
(Commentary)

(Also part of LX0-103 Section 103.1)

unset
(Commentary)

(Also part of LX0-104 section 105.1: Customize and use the shell environment.)

~/.bash_profile
(Commentary)

~/.bash_login
(Commentary)

~/.profile
(Commentary)

~/.bashrc
(Commentary)

(“recipe”)

~/.bash_logout
(Commentary)

function
(Commentary)

alias
(Commentary)

lists
(Commentary)

(arrays?)

[#lx0104s52]: 105.2: Shell Scripting

Section Title: “Customize or write simple scripts”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 4

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new Bash scripts.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests)
(Commentary)

Use command substitution
(Commentary)

(Might be referring to $( and ) maybe?)

Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command
(Commentary)

${?}

Perform conditional mailing to the superuser
(Commentary)

(Probably presuming sendmail's mail command... see ][CyberPillar][: Sending E-Mail from the command line using the mail command.)

Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line
(Commentary)

Manage the location, ownership, execution and SUID rights of scripts
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(Specific, provided example topics...)
for
(Commentary)

while
(Commentary)

test
(Commentary)

Also be aware of [ (which searches for a matching ]). Despite the fact that it may have a “man page” and an external executable file, this is often internal to the shell.

if
(Commentary)

read
(Commentary)

seq
(Commentary)

exec
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s53]: 105.3: SQL

Section Title: “SQL data management”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 2

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to query databases and manipulate data using basic SQL commands. This objective includes performing queries involving joining of 2 tables and/or subselects.”

(Commentary)

As ironic as this may seem, common consensus seems to be that this does not cover installing SQL software. This topic is simply knowing the language, so that if you have SQL software installed and learned how to use the SQL software, then you can use this language. (Many features of the language are rather common to multiple different SQL software implementations.)

...

Key Knowledge Areas
Use of basic SQL commands
(Commentary)

Perform basic data manipulation
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(Specific, provided example topics...)
insert
(Commentary)

update
(Commentary)

select
(Commentary)

delete
(Commentary)

from
(Commentary)

where
(Commentary)

group by
(Commentary)

order by
(Commentary)

join
(Commentary)

Domain 106 User Interfaces and Desktops 8%

[#lx0104s61]: 106.1 : Install/Config X

Section Title: “Install and configure X11”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 2

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to install and configure X11.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server.
(Commentary)

Awareness of the X font server
(Commentary)

Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(Specific, provided example topics...)
/etc/X11/xorg.conf
(Commentary)

xhost
(Commentary)

DISPLAY
(Commentary)

xwininfo
(Commentary)

xdpyinfo
(Commentary)

X
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s62]: 106.2 : Display Mgr

Section Title: “Set up a display manager”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 1

LPI Exam 102's Description: “andidates should be able to describe the basic features and configuration of the LightDM display manager. This objective covers awareness of the display managers XDM (X Display Manger), GDM (Gnome Display Manager) and KDM (KDE Display Manager).”

Key Knowledge Areas
Basic configuration of LightDM
(Commentary)

Turn the display manager on or off
(Commentary)

Change the display manager greeting
(Commentary)

Awareness of XDM, KDM and GDM
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(Specific, provided example topics...)
lightdm
(Commentary)

/etc/lightdm/
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s63]: 106.3 : Accessibility

Section Title: “Accessibility”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 1

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)
(Commentary)

Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes
(Commentary)

Basic knowledge of assistive technology (ATs)
(Commentary)

Terms and Utilities
...
Sticky/Repeat Keys
(Commentary)

Slow/Bounce/Toggle Keys
(Commentary)

Mouse Keys
(Commentary)

High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes
(Commentary)

Screen Reader
(Commentary)

Braille Display
(Commentary)

Screen Magnifier
(Commentary)

On-Screen Keyboard
(Commentary)

Gestures (used at login, for example GDM)
(Commentary)

Orca
(Commentary)

GOK
(Commentary)

emacspeak
(Commentary)

Domain 107 Admin Tasks 20%

“Administrative Tasks”

[#lx0104s71]: 107.1 : Users/Groups

Section Title: “Manage user and group accounts and related system files”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 5

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Add, modify and remove users and groups
(Commentary)

Manage user/group info in password/group databases
(Commentary)

Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/passwd
(Commentary)

/etc/shadow
(Commentary)

/etc/group
(Commentary)

/etc/skel/
(Commentary)

CompTIA may label is different...

chage
(Commentary)

getent
(Commentary)

groupadd
(Commentary)

groupdel
(Commentary)

groupmod
(Commentary)

passwd
(Commentary)

(This is referring to the command, as there is another topic related to the /etc/passwd file.)

useradd
(Commentary)

userdel
(Commentary)

usermod
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s72]: 107.2 : Scheduling jobs

Section Title: “Automate systems administration tasks by scheduling jobs.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 4

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Manage cron and at jobs
(Commentary)

Configure user access to cron and at services
(Commentary)

Configure anacron
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(provided terms)
/etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
(Commentary)

(In CompTIA's list, the seperation after the period is likely just to help keep things in columns.)

CompTIA's list lacked the slash at the end.

/etc/at.deny
(Commentary)

/etc/at.allow
(Commentary)

/etc/crontab
(Commentary)

/etc/cron.allow
(Commentary)

/etc/cron.deny
(Commentary)

/var/spool/cron/*
(Commentary)

(LPI's list was just “/var/spool/cron/”. Instead of removing the slash like usual, CompTIA added an asterisk.)

crontab
(Commentary)

at
(Commentary)

atq
(Commentary)

atrm
(Commentary)

anacron
(Commentary)

/etc/anacrontab
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s73]: 107.3 : Lcl/Int'li-zation

Section Title: “Localization and internationalization.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. As well, an understanding of why LANG=C is useful when scripting.”

(Commentary)

The section title here is spelled as CompTIA did. LPI spelled it with British spelling (using an s everywhere that American English used a z in those words).

Key Knowledge Areas
Configure local settings and environment variables
(Commentary)

LPI spelled as “locale”

Configure timezone settings and environment variables
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
(provided)
/etc/timezone
(Commentary)

/etc/localtime
(Commentary)

/usr/share/zoneinfo/
(Commentary)

(CompTIA lacked final slash?)

Environment variables:
(Commentary)
CompTIA nicely identified these as Environment variables. (LPI just listed them as separate topics.)

...

(Provided terms)
LC_*
(Commentary)

No, environment variables don't support using an asterisk like this. Clearly this was meant conceptually, not as a literal term. Presumably most people taking this exam will be quite familiar with an asterisk typically representing a wildcard.

LC_ALL
(Commentary)

LANG
(Commentary)

TZ
(Commentary)

/usr/bin/locale
(Commentary)

tzselect
(Commentary)

tzconfig
(Commentary)

date
(Commentary)

iconv
(Commentary)

UTF-8
(Commentary)

ISO-8859
(Commentary)

ASCII
(Commentary)

Unicode
...

Domain 108 Essential System Services 17%

[#lx0104s81]: 108.1 :

Section Title: “Maintain system time.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.rdquo;

Key Knowledge Areas
Set the system date and time
(Commentary)

Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC
(Commentary)

Configure the correct timezone
(Commentary)

Basic NTP configuration
(Commentary)

Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service
(Commentary)

Awareness of the ntpq command
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/usr/share/zoneinfo/
(Commentary)

(CompTIA lacking later slash)

/etc/timezone
(Commentary)

/etc/localtime
(Commentary)

/etc/ntp.conf
(Commentary)

date
(Commentary)

hwclock
(Commentary)

ntpd
(Commentary)

ntpdate
(Commentary)

pool.ntp.org
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s82]: 108.2 : Syslog

Section Title: “System logging”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to configure the syslog daemon. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Configuration of the syslog daemon
(Commentary)

Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions
(Commentary)

Configuration of logrotate
(Commentary)

Awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
syslog.conf
(Commentary)

syslogd
(Commentary)

klogd
(Commentary)

/var/log/
(Commentary)

logger
(Commentary)

logrotate
(Commentary)

/etc/logrotate.conf
(Commentary)

/etc/logrotate.d/
(Commentary)

journalctl
(Commentary)

CompTIA had this capitalized (“Journalctl”)

/etc/systemd/journald.conf
(Commentary)

/var/log/journal/
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s83]: 108.3 : MTA

Section Title: “Mail transfer agent (MTA) basics”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forward and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Create e-mail aliases
(Commentary)

(CompTIA lacked the hyphen.)

Configure e-mail forwarding
(Commentary)

(CompTIA lacked the hyphen.)

Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, qmail, exim) (no configuration)
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
~/.forward
(Commentary)

sendmail emulation layer commands
(Commentary)

newaliases
(Commentary)

mail
(Commentary)

mailq
(Commentary)

postfix
(Commentary)

sendmail
(Commentary)

exim
(Commentary)

qmail
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s84]: 108.4 : Printing

Section Title: “Manage printers and printing”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 2

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers)
(Commentary)

Manage user print queues
(Commentary)

Troubleshoot general printing problems
(Commentary)

Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
(Commentary)

/etc/cups/
(Commentary)

(CompTIA's list lacked the trailing, final slash)

lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

Domain 109 Networking Fundamentals 23%

[#lx0104s91]: 109.1 : Internet Protocols

Section Title: “Fundamentals of Internet protocols.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 4

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals.”

(Commentary)

(This section title quoted CompTIA. LPI's lacked the period at the end, and notably had “Internet” lowercase.)

Key Knowledge Areas
Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation
(Commentary)

Knowledge of the differences between private and public “dotted quad” IP addresses
(Commentary)

We can assume IP due to the reference to “dotted quad”, but it's not bad to also know that IPv6 has a range of private addresses, which is fd00/16 (any address starting with “fd”).

Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995)
(Commentary)

Alright, let's go through this:

TCP port 20 - FTP-data (unencrypted)

TCP port 21 - FTP (unencrypted)

TCP port 22 - SSH

TCP port 23 - TELNET (unencrypted)

TCP port 25 - SMTP (unencrypted)

UDP port 53 - DNS

(Also may use TCP port 53 for zone transfers, and possibly for EDNS, but a classic traditional short DNS lookup uses UDP.

TCP port 80 - HTTP

TCP port 110 - POP3

??? port 123 - NTP (unencrypted)

??? port 139 - NetBIOS session

Portmapper?

TCP port 143 - IMAP4 (unencrypted)

port 161 - SNMP

port 162 - SNMP-trap

port 389 - LDAP

UDP and TCP? According to OpenBSD /etc/services

TCP port 443 - HTTPS

TCP port 465 - SMTPS

IANA: “Message Submission over TLS protocol”, abbreviated “submissions

OpenBSD's /etc/services: abbeviated smtps, described as “# SSL-wrapped SMTP

Debian's /etc/services: abbreviated as ssmtp ; described as “# SMTP over SSL

UDP port 514 - syslog

There was also a TCP port 514 - shell. Some software might look in /etc/services and find that 514 is related to “shell” and report that (even for a UDP port), but the “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” certification is much more likely to be referring to syslog.

(UDP and TCP?) port(s?) 636 - LDAPS

IANA calls this “ldap protocol over TLS/SSL (was sldap)”.

TCP port 993 - IMAPS

TCP port 995 - POP3S

The TCP variation is covered by RFC8314. There is also a UDP variation “SPOP3” which may be using DTLS? (Datagram TLS - https://stackoverflow.com/a/16663766)

Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP
(Commentary)

Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6
(Commentary)

Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/services
(Commentary)

IPv4, IPv6
(Commentary)

Subnetting
(Commentary)

(It will be good to be able to re-create a VLSM chart.)

TCP, UDP, ICMP
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s92]: 109.2 : Internet Protocols

Section Title: “Basic network configuration”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 4

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings on client hosts.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Manually and automatically configure network interfaces
(Commentary)

Basic TCP/IP host configuration
(Commentary)

Setting a default route
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hostname
(Commentary)

(Also, know of the hostname command, which is part of section 109.3.)

/etc/hosts
(Commentary)

/etc/nsswitch.conf
(Commentary)

ifconfig
(Commentary)

ifup
(Commentary)

ifdown
(Commentary)

ip
(Commentary)

route
(Commentary)

ping
(Commentary)

[#lx0104s93]: 109.3 : Net Fix

Section Title: “Basic network troubleshooting”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 4

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces
(Commentary)

Ack! Breathe! There was so much mentioned there... the final six topics (starting with the word “adding&” may have been appropriate to be separate sub-“bullet points”. Instead, quite a bit was crammed into just a single bullet point.

Change, view or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually
(Commentary)

Debug problems associated with the network configuration
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
ifconfig
(Commentary)

ip
(Commentary)

ifup
(Commentary)

ifdown
(Commentary)

route
(Commentary)

host
(Commentary)

hostname
(Commentary)

dig
(Commentary)

netstat
(Commentary)

Know -na and -nr which are also useful in Microsoft Windows. Also, Linux tends to support -t for TCP.

(Also part of 110.1)

ping
(Commentary)

Defaults to infinite. Ctrl-C breaks, like Microsoft Windows. In Microsoft Windows, Ctrl-Break is likely to give a similar status report, but without stopping an ongoing ping command. In Linux, the console may not be as prone to recognize Ctrl-Break, but a signal (sent via kill) could do the trick.

ping6
(Commentary)

traceroute
(Commentary)

traceroute6
(Commentary)

tracepath
(Commentary)

tracepath6
(Commentary)

netcat
(Commentary)

can be a.k.a. nc, not to mention others like socat

[#lx0104s94]: 109.4: DNS Client

Section Title: “Configure client-side DNS.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 2

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host.”

(Commentary)

(Using CompTIA's section title. LPI's was “Configure client side DNS”.)

Key Knowledge Areas
Query remote DNS servers
(Commentary)

Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers
(Commentary)

Modify the order in which name resolution is done
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hosts
(Commentary)

/etc/resolv.conf
(Commentary)

/etc/nsswitch.conf
(Commentary)

host
(Commentary)

CompTIA's list had this capitalized (“Host”)

dig
(Commentary)

CompTIA's list had this capitalized (“Dig”)

getent
(Commentary)

Domain 110 Security 15%

[#lx0104sa1]: 110.1 : Security Admin

Section Title: “Perform security administration tasks”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set
(Commentary)

Set or change user passwords and password aging information
(Commentary)

Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system
(Commentary)

Be warned that some people would consider such scans to be an “attack”, and so there may be “legal” (“law-related”) implications to this. Ensure you have permission, in some sort of “written” format, before doing this. (Having this electronically may be sufficient, as long as you will continue to be able to access that electronic documentation.)

Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage
(Commentary)

Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in
(Commentary)

Basic sudo configuration and usage
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
find
(Commentary)

passwd
(Commentary)

fuser
(Commentary)

lsof
(Commentary)

nmap
(Commentary)

chage
(Commentary)

netstat
(Commentary)

(Also part of 109.3)

sudo
(Commentary)

Also know about: doas

/etc/sudoers
(Commentary)

su
(Commentary)

usermod
(Commentary)

ulimit
(Commentary)

who, w, last
(Commentary)

[#lx0104sa2]: 110.2 : Host Sec

Section Title: “Set up host security.”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.”

(Commentary)

Quoting CompTIA's section title. LPI's was “Setup host security”.

Key Knowledge Areas
Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work
(Commentary)

Turn off network services not in use
(Commentary)

Understand the role of TCP wrappers
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/nologin
(Commentary)

/etc/passwd
(Commentary)

/etc/shadow
(Commentary)

/etc/xinetd.d/*
(Commentary)

LPI's term lacked the asterisk at the end. Instead of dropping the trailing slash, CompTIA added an asterisk to the end.

/etc/xinetd.conf
(Commentary)

/etc/inittab
(Commentary)

/etc/init.d/*
(Commentary)

Rather than drop the final slash, CompTIA added an asterisk which isn't in the LPI objectives list.

/etc/hosts.allow
(Commentary)

/etc/hosts.deny
(Commentary)

[#lx0104sa3]: 110.3 : Encrypt

Section Title: “Securing data with encryption”

LPI Exam 102's Weight: 3

LPI Exam 102's Description: “The candidate should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication.”

Key Knowledge Areas
Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage
(Commentary)

Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys
(Commentary)

Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation
(Commentary)

Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels)
(Commentary)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
ssh
(Commentary)

ssh-keygen
(Commentary)

ssh-agent
(Commentary)

ssh-add
(Commentary)

~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
(Commentary)

~/.ssh/id_dsa and id_dsa.pub
(Commentary)

/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
(Commentary)

/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
(Commentary)

~/.ssh/authorized_keys
(Commentary)

/etc/ssh_known_hosts
(Commentary)

CompTIA mentions the directory name ; LPI does not

gpg
(Commentary)

~/.gnupg/*
(Commentary)

CompTIA has a trailing asterisk, while LPI's objectives list just ends with the second slash.

Other Resources

(Some of this commentary may be more about A+ rather than Linux+.)

Unlike some other CompTIA certifications, this CompTIA certification objectives list did not come with a glossary of acronyms.

The certification does rqeuire passing two examinations. Besides the LX0-104, examination, there is also the LX0-103. (See also: “CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI” LX0-103.)