Automatic Network Address Assignment

a.k.a.: automatic network addressing

[#ip6autad]: Automatic IPv6 network addressing
Topics include NDP, SLAAC, and DHCPv6.
[#ip4autad]: Automatic IPv4 network addressing
ICMP router discovery messages

Yup, ICMP can be useful for automatic address assignments. This uses ICMP Router Discovery Messages called “Router Advertisements” and “Router Solicitations”. Essentially, the IPv4 version of these messages, documented by RFC 1256, is/seems/might-be more equivilent/similar to IPv6's NDP (and IPv6's SLAAC, which uses information obtained by IPv6's NDP).

Older protocols often used for IPv4
[#dhcp]: Dynamic Host Control Protocol (“DCHP”)

See IPv4 automatic addressing: section on DHCP or, more specifically, DHCP/IPv4.

[#bootp]: BOOTP

See IPv4 automatic addressing: section on BOOTP.

Newer methods
[#ip4lnklc]: Using IPv4 link-local addresses

Perhaps see: RFC 3927: Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses, and/or one of the implementations at: Wikipedia's page on Zero configuration networking: section on Link-local IPv4 addresses.

If there is an interest in using these non-routable addresses, perhaps see: LLMNR which relies on multicast instead of routing.

Registering address usage
Additional info : One may wish to register the addresses that are handed out dynamically. e.g. Spanhaus “Policy Block List” (“PBL”), or SORBS Dynamic User and Host List (“DUHL”) which continues beyond the time that Easynet NL's Dynablock list was active.