Installing some software

Note: This is largely a pointer to some software which may often be quite good to install. For details about how to install software, see software installation.

This section covers installing some desired software (likely to be desirable for system administrators to use), and is considered to be part of the guide to setting up an installed operating system.

Some common software

The following is some software which may be good to install on many machines.

Preparation/overview

There's two schools of thought on this. The following sections will provide recommendations on software to install.

Become familiar with the preferred common method of installing software for the operating system platform. For any software package management system that is going to be used, set repositories. Software installation page should have more details on accomplishing that. Learn how to install software with the package management system.

Additional operating system components

If there is additional optional software that is part of the operating system, which has not yet been installed, but which will be installed, then it may be good to install that software before applying updates. The simply reason is that such software is more likely to be included in what gets fixed when updates apply.

Examples include additional file sets in BSD operating systems, or installing additional roles in a Microsoft Windows Server operating system.

Updates to software (including the operating system)

The theoretical ideal is that patching is done very early on, even before connecting to the network. This set of priorities is designed to reduce the likelihood of a networked device exploiting an old and known vulnerability before that problem gets sealed up by security patches. The reality is that, in very many cases, the easiest way to obtain patches, so that they may be applied, is to connect to the network. However, while the system is still in a secure environment (fully protected by a firewall that makes sure incoming network attacks won't reach the new machine), it is good to get software updates deployed.

See operating system updates and software updates.

[#prtctnsw]: Protection software

It makes sense to install protection software early on so that it may help protect the system while other software is being installed. Of particular note, building an initial database for file integrity checking may be good to implement before installing a lot of other software, because then that database may be compared to later and one can see just what files got changed. (For that matter, installing a file integrity checker before making other changes may make sense, although often there are other interests, such as hardening the system by using custom accounts for administration, which may take a bit of a higher priority than installing and using this sort of software.) For more details, see the separate section about protection software.

Anti-Virus software

This section may not be very complete; particularly information about AV for Unix may need some additional testing/research before this website recommends following this guide. However, AV for Microsoft Windows platforms may be implemented as described.

Some configuration options that may need to be set, and so which should be looked for:

Setting the update source

If this is an internal system, or a “parent/base image”/“basing file” which will be used to make “child/snapshot images” which will mostly be internal systems, consider updating from an internal source (which is automatically updated).

About cleaning methods

Determine whether the Anti-Virus software should attempt to automatically “clean” a system by deleting any added files and, if possible, return modified files to their pre-infected state. (In theory there are scenarios where a file may be returned to its original state, such as if malware prepends itself to a file and so the anti-virus software may simply remove the bytes that were added. Even this may alter the metadata, such as the modification time associated with the file. However, in other cases the malware destroys part of the file and in such a case there is no real way to get the original file back through cleaning. Restoring from a known good copy is needed to get that file back.) The biggest problem with automatic cleaning is that there are cases where the automatically cleaned file won't match the original file to such an extent that the system won't operate correctly with the cleaned file. Problems are perhaps more likely to show up during a system restart sequence when many critical system files are read from disk and executed.

When cleaning software, placing malware in a quarantine is generally safer than outright deleting it. First, it allows much easier recovery if the file is actually a clean file (which is actually not malicious in any way) is being affected by a “false positive” (a.k.a. a mistake made during the scanning process, generally caused by a problem with the latest definition files being used). (In the case of a false positive, inform the source of the definition files, which is typically if not always related to the developers of the software, and hopefully the mistake will become a known issue which is solved with newer definition files.) Moving files into a quarantine instead of deleting them is a process that also helps to be able to better identify the malware or what its behavior is. In extreme cases, one option (which is almost if not always recommended to not proceed with performing) is to restore the malware so that the infected file can help the system operate in a closer to normal fashion, such as booting up.

It may also be good to check the quarantine on a routine basis (like a few times a year). If a file has been left in quarantine but the system has been continuing to work fine even after being rebooted multiple times, then that file is probably having no impact except taking up space and being a potential threat in case it ever gets restored. If there is no further interest in the file, consider removing it. (If automating this, checking for the date of the file is not the only thing that should be done: Compare such data to the date(s) of the most recent reboot(s).)

Alerting methods
How does the anti-virus software alert people who are serving as IT technical support? How does the anti-virus software interact with the end user? (Is the end user informed by the software through a visual notice? Can the end user make choices on how to clean the system, or are there restrictions which only allow authorized staff members to make decisions about how the malware incident is responded to?)

Some software options to choose from:

Anti-Virus Software for Unix-like operating sytems
See Anti-Virus software for Unix platforms
Windows

Until this section is expanded, perhaps check out some software listed on TOOGAM's Protective Software page.

Install ClamWin (using the Guide to ClamWin), and be sure to configure the software. (The guide has recommendations.) If the computer is powerful enough, install a working solution to make ClamWin scanning occur in real-time, such as Clam Sentinel. Also, install another anti-virus software. One option to consider checking out is whether Microsoft Security Essentials: Legality requirements are met. If so, install Microsoft Security Essentials. Pleasantly, Clam Sentinel and Microsoft Security Essentials have not been typically known to conflict with each other. However, running both have been known to slow down some systems enough that it is rather noticable, at least for some users. Be prepared, on such systems, to be ready to remove either the real-time solution that works with ClamWin or to remove the real-time protection of the other software that is used.

One possible course of action: ClamWin Free Antivirus section on SF.net: “Files” page and download the clamwin-*.*.*-setup-nodb.exe file. Install and set up a scan. Then, for computers where the license restrictions do not prevent such usage, and where there is a supporting operating system being used, get Microsoft Security Essentials. (Another home page for that product may be at Microsoft Security Products: Microsoft Security Essentials.) Be sure to check the options, including the “Default Actions” which, if there is doubt, may be set to “Quarantine”. For users who respond correctly to situations of quarantined malware, that will offer fairly adequent protection. Finally, install Clam Sentinel. For some systems, that combination will work just fine. For other systems, the combination of both MSE and Clam Sentinel may bog the computer down sufficiently that it seems very slow to the end user. On such systems, removing Clam Sentinel may be an option.

MS-DOS
Until this section is expanded (if it ever does get expanded), check out some software listed on TOOGAM's Protective Software page. Specifically the hyperlink to TOOGAM's page of Anti-Virus software for MS-DOS. However, anti-virus scanning in operating systems which are largely compatible with DOS may have some information about malware which is has been known to target files on DOS-compatible hard drive partition. Some older scanning software meant to run in a Microsoft Windows may even come with a DOS boot disk for a repair process so that the repair tools run in an environment which may be less infected than the Microsoft Windows installation. Such usage of a DOS environment has declined, though, as support for Windows 98 Second Edition dropped from newer softare and as the x64 platform stopped supporting older 16-bit and 8-bit code.
File integrity checker(s)

See: File Integrity Checker(s).

This can be nice to run early, not only to start protecting the system at a nice and early stage, but also so that differences, made to the system, can start to be tracked.

Additional system integrity checking software
rkhunter is well known.
Undelete software

If data is accidentally deleted, data might be able to be most quickly restored by using software designed to “undelete” a file. However, the disk should not be written to. If software to “undelete” a file isn't pre-installed, a predicament may exist, because installing the software may write to a disk that ideally won't be written to. Such a predicament may be avoidable by installing the software ahead of time (just in case there is ever a desire to undelete later).

Details about such software may be found at recovering files (and other section(s) that may be referenced by the “recovering files” section).

Functionality

Some of this software may be needed to provide some core functionality. However, at least some of this software, such as software providing compatibility, may not be needed in some environments.

[#autipgtc]: Automatic network addressing

Although DHCP is generally included with a typical standard TCP/IPv4 stack, DHCPv6 support may need to be added.

(This may be getting updated soon, to recommend ISC DHCP? In Unix, if “ which dhcpd6s ” produces no results, consider installing WIDE DHCPv6. (Note that this is a different package from WIDE DHCP which is for IPv4).

File system access
Ext2/Ext3/Ext4
For Unix-like operating systems, see: The e2fsprogs package. For Microsoft Windows NT/2K/XP, see Ext2Fsd Project (which has a Ext2 File System Driver for Windows NT-based operating systems: SourceForge project area. That driver has the blessing from the e2fsprogs package's page about Ext2, which is significant as the developer of that software has been involved in supporting the development of the file systems. Ext2 IFS for Windows may also work on Win NT 4.0/2K/XP/newer. Explore2fs version 1.06 supports Win95 and newer, including WinNT 4, but acts as an interface that provides a way to accomplish some file operations, rather than being a driver.
ReiserFS
For Microsoft Windows: Virtual Volumes. For OpenBSD: No solution, as noted by OpenBSD FAQ 8: section about Journaling Filesystems (OpenBSD FAQ 8.21), and by OpenBSD FAQ 9: section with “Tips for users of other Unix-like Operating Systems” (FAQ section 9.1) which notes, “OpenBSD does NOT support Journaling Filesystems like ReiserFS, IBM's JFS or SGI's XFS.”
Other software (which is generally popular to place on many machines)

Installing protection software first and foremost is recommended (in case these instructions were somehow skipped to before that was taken care of). Here are some other categories of software and some options.

Setting the system's time/clock is also recommended. (If NTP isn't yet supported, consider installing an NTP implementation. The previous hyperlink may have information.)

(Some of these sections may be geared more for Unix users.) The sections were made from some notes made when working with Unix. Appropriate references, at least mentioning what is Unix-specific, may improve this section for other enivronments.

Command line user interfaces
Preferred shells

Some additional options might be listed in the section on Human interface details: section on “Command line shells”.

Unix

A list of recognized shells might be listed in “/etc/shells”. (This list may be recognized by programs such as chpass and, as pointed out by OpenBSD's default version of this file, the file transfer protocol server ftpd.)

For most Unix-style operating systems, the “Bourne Again” shell bash is desirable if it isn't already installed.

One exception of an operating system where there may be less need for bash is OpenBSD: OpenBSD FAQ 9 (Migrating to OpenBSD) says “Users familiar with bash are encouraged to try ksh(1) before loading bash on their system -- it does what most people desire of bash.” (Unlike some other versions of ksh or even other releases of pdksh, it does seem to be true that OpenBSD's ksh is quite compatible with the features people expect from bash.) However, if a virtual machine's parent image is trying to store all of the software likely to be desired on child images (which is one of the possible courses of action to take when deciding what software to install to a parent image, although not necessarily one recommended over a minimalistic approach), it may make sense to include bash even if it doesn't get used, just in case some sort of installation script ends up needing that shell.

Users of Linux operating systems could experience OpenBSD's ksh ported to Linux, available at http://wormhole.hu/~ice/ksh (which is a new/updated location. (There was previously an option found at http://www.delilinux.de/oksh/ but there may be little point to use that port if it doesn't come standard with theh operating system installation. That port did not offer any license advantage of using something less encumbered than bash's GPL (now GPLv3), because that port was also encumbered by the GPLv3.)

It may also be good to have csh as some code may assume using a shell that is compatible with that rather than sh. However, that is likely rare, and furthermore the software probably does not need to be installed because csh is likely included with a standard operating system installation. Wikipedia's page on tcsh: section on “Deployment” of tcsh notes some operating systems that have adopted that software as the default shell, suggesting it may be a worthwhile option to check out if interaction with a shell compatible with csh is desired. Csh Programming Considered Harmful is an article describing many things that are easy to do with the Bourne shell, but problematic with Csh. (The bottom of the page has a summary.)

The software Pash (by IgorM) may be similar to Microsoft's PowerShell. There are some aspects of the capabilities about Microsoft's PowerShell that seem rather useful and/or convenient, and Microsoft has been pushing PowerShell as a useful technology. As long as that remains true, people are likely to discover how to do useful things with Microsoft PowerShell on the Microsoft Windows platform, and adoption may increase. In August of 2014, the home page noted (that the project had achieved) approximately “50% of public PowerShell classes defined” and approximately “40% of framework functionality operational.” Even if the software is currently not yet developed sufficiently enough to achieve some specific purposes, this software may still be useful to keep an eye on (over the years).

DOS and similar (Windows, OS/2)

Some shells which have a lot of features of Unix, but which are targetted for the non-Unix platforms, are those from shareware (and in some cases freeware) distributor “JP Software”. For older operating systems, see TOOGAM's page about JP Software products. For more modern versions of Microsoft Windows, grab the latest release (which is likely to be shareware) directly from JP Software. The enhancements are more notable when using older software like MS-DOS. In some cases, offerings from JP Software products have provided enhancements that weren't available in older operating systems but then later, newer operating systems included some of the functionality.

Many of the features coming from functionality provided by JP Software products have been features commonly found in Unix environments. Another way to get a more Unix-like experience is to use Unix shell software within Windows using Cygwin (or perhaps XMing?). (DOS platforms may be able to run some Windows executables that don't require the GUI, using the HX DOS-Extender.)

Many versions of DOS have been bundled with a TSR program called DOSKey which may be useful for those who prefer not to obtain and run a downloaded command line shell.

Microsoft Windows
Post-Y2K Microsoft Windows platforms
PowerShell
(Windows) PowerShell by Microsoft

PowerShell has been integrated into some operating systems. For operating systems which do not have PowerShell but can download it, or for which there is a newer version of PowerShell, it may be wise to grab the latest version so that any software that uses PowerShell may work. (Although PowerShell may not have received initial wide adoption, its ability to integrate with major Microsoft software products will likely lead to more widespread adoption than what it had during the first years following its initial roll-out.)

PowerShell Version 1
WinSvr2003 PowerShell, MS KB 928439

TechNet ScriptCenter: PowerShell, Download details, Download details, KB 968929. PowerShell Getting Started Guide

Prior to this software's release of version 1 named PowerShell, this shell had a code-name of “Monad shell” (“MSH”).

Coders: TechNet's “Introducing the Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (“ISE”). However, see also Pash which may be more compatible with various environments.

Pash (by IgorM)

Meant to provide support similar to “Posh” (“PowerShell”) and bash (the “Bourne Again shell” for Unix), this may use Mono rather than just .NET 2.0. The main web site may indicate only about 40% of framework functionality being operational, and 50% of public PowerShell classes defined.

Some of the options listed in the section about shells for DOS platforms are applicable (and even meant to be targeted primarily for) users of Microsoft Windows platforms. (Checking out JP Software products may be worthwhile/useful.)

Forum post about alternate shells has recommended some alternatives (which are not being particularly recommended by this guide, at least not yet... for now they are just here for reference and possible further research) such as Console (from console.sf.net), Poderosa, IPython

Those who are more interested in Unix-compatibility than traditional DOS/Windows compatibility may be interested in actually running a shell from Unix. (Also be sure to grab the UnxUtils utilities.) bash for Windows, CygWin, etc. perhaps see also: Wikipedia's page on Windows Services for UNIX.

Win16
  • JP Software had released a shareware product called “Take Command” which could be used instead of Progman.exe. The program came with technology that JP Software called “Caveman” which (if the details are being correctly, though just barely, remembered) was designed to allow DOS programs to look like they were really running in a normal Windows window (complete with features like customizable colors and a scroll bar).
  • Wikipedia's article on Windows shell replacement may have some for Win3.
Other enhancements for the general command line interface
Unix
[#pipevwr]: pv

Pipe Viewer, Pipe Viewer: Online Man Page

For Ubuntu: May need to use Symantec and check box to use non-free apps? (Surely there's a more direct way to effectively make the same change in a way that affects Aptitude...)

Examples of how this may be used include: optimizing hardware (including bandwidth testing) or viewing progress of a copied file.

cstream

Software which might be similar to pipe viewer: see cstream home page. (Also, this is mentioned at: viewing progress of a copied file.)

[#getless]: less/more

The less command is often included in Unix operating systems, as well as the more command. The phrase “less is more” is a pun to suggest that the less command is superior, but also that the less command is often the exact same executable as the more command.

Download locations may include: Downloading less. (This hyperlink will likely help for Unix operating systems. There is a seperate section for DOS.)

gls (a.k.a. gnuls) / colorls
This software may be used for customizing the listings of files within a directory/folder.
DOS

Scrollback software for DOS

[#doslistc]: A file viewer

A file viewer, such as the “list built into JP Software's products, or less. GNUWin32 Less for Windows with HX DOS. The DOS option at Gargo (formerly at http://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/unix.html ) seems to now be invalid.

Information related to using this type of software may be at viewing files.

File archivers
7-Zip
7-Zip downloads, p7zip-rar, p7zip.
Better ZIP file maker(s)

Currently, the recommended software for this is Brotli. (The software, and some older software that may provide similar functionality, has been mentioned on the ][CyberPillar][ Titorial by TOOGAM: Bit Compression.

bzip2

This may use more resources than gzip, although a version for MS-DOS has been made available for 32-bit machines so users of an 80386SX or anything newer may be able to use this rather than gzip. Unlike some newer compressors, this tends to often do a fairly decent job without needing to create a file that likely requires multiple dozens/hundreds/thousands of megabytes of memory for an existing implementation to be able to efficiently decode.

Similar to gzip, but provides tighter compression (at the cost of speed). This format gained enough popularity that Unix systems probably should have a tool to handle this format. (Bzip2 is also available for other platforms.)

XZ files
.xz files may be supported by XZ Utils which may have a package called xz or xzutils. According to Wikipedia's page on xz, GNU coreutils 7.1 and newer, so getting that may support this newer format.
gzip

Also gzip is widely used in Unix, although that probably does not need to be added (because it probably comes with the operating system). Many popular operating systems that don't come with a program to handle gzip files may have an option provided by the Info-Zip group (which is more famous for software to handle Zip files).

The GZIP file format is documented by RFC 1952: GZIP file format specification version 4.3. GZip is one of the content encodings specified by RFC 2616: HTTP 1.1 (section 3.5: Content Encodings). Most popular/common web browsers support content being compressed by gzip. The note at the bottom of RFC 2616 page 103 (continuing onto the next page) even discusses support by some HTTP 1.0 web browsers. This includes Netscape 4.06 and newer, MS IE 4 (via HTTP 1.1), Opera 5, and Lynx 2.6 (according to browser support for Content-Encoding).

Zip files

These are generally able to be handled by software such as 7-Zip. (See data compression guide for details.)

The Info-Zip packages are also available for many platforms.

Extractors/Misc
unrar and unarj may be useful for some situations, including supporting popular files from within clamav.
Arj

Arj can be handled by Open-source ARJ versions 2.78 and, for some platforms, version 3.10. (For those who like color and are using DOS-compatible platforms, check out the experimental versions.)

Historical overview: In the early to late 1990's, Arj had approximately the same compression as the ZIP 2.0 format, so compression was notably better than Zip back in the days of PKZip 1.1. It also had a number of additional options, including multi-volume archives. However, the author did not release an open source variation until much later. At the time, Zip was an openly documented format. This may have been the key reason why the Zip format won out in popularity.

Rar

(Rar files may also be able to be handled by some versions of 7zip, including p7zip-rar, although there may be some licensing considerations. The WinRAR and RAR archive addons page contains several freeware versions of UnRAR. There are also other versions of UnRar which may support some Rar files (like those made with Rar 2.x software or earlier, but not some/many/all files made with Rar 3.x). There is also UnRar for Windows on a SourceForge page, some others mentioned at Wikipedia's page for Unrar, and the web page of UnRarX for Apple Mac promises “source will be available soon.”

Historical overview: In the mid- to late- 1990's, RAR may have become popular due to a disk spanning feature (similar to what Arj had) combined with some good compression (perhaps a bit better than tools that handled Zip format), and a GUI interface. People who used Rar to illegally distribute (“pirated”) software didn't care much about Rar's stricter licensing requirements, and so favored this format.

For users of Microsoft Windows, some of these options, and others, may be found from TOOGAM's software archive: Archivers. For .xz files, a page for XZ version 5.0.0 for Microsoft Windows is hyperlinked to from Wikipedia's page on XZ Utils: “External links” section.

Other text editor(s)

Most operating systems will have one, although users of Unix may want to install one which is preferred over the traditional Unix editors.

Unix

The most common text editor that is downloaded, if it isn't already installed, may be nano. (Another one found on some systems, probably primarily older Unix systems, is pico which is fairly similar functionally, although licensed differently.)

For some other options, see the section on modifying a text file.

After installing the editor, see if it can run in a suitably restricted mode. If so, consider adding it to be supported by visudo. To do this, use an editor that currently works with visudo if possible. Find a line in the /etc/sudoers file, if such a line currently exists, that defines a value for “editor”. The line may simply not exist the first time this is done: in that case, add a line that lists editors colon-separated. For example:

Defaults editor=/usr/local/bin/nano:/usr/bin/nano:/usr/bin/mg

Err, the above may need additional testing.

It seems it may have been fixed using:

Defaults editor +="/usr/bin/vi:/usr/local/bin/nano:nano:/bin/ksh:/bin/sh,env_editor"
#Defaults editor +="/usr/bin/vi:/usr/local/bin/nano:/bin/ksh:/bin/sh,env_editor"
#Defaults env_keep +="env_editor"
#Defaults env_editor

and perhaps using export EDITOR=nano (rather than “ EDITOR=/usr/bin/local/nano ” without using export). But then attempts to break things didn't work; perhaps sudo is remembering previous settings (similar to when it remembers a recently typed password)?

The above (/usr/local/bin/nano:/usr/bin/nano) will find nano in one of multiple locations. The location of nano is likely to depend on whether the program is considered to be a built in part of the standard operating system distribution, or whether the program is simply added on after the operating system is installed. FreeBSD users may want to support ee. The easiest/best way to locate an executable that is in the PATH is to use which.

File sharing, if applicable

Some options may be described by file transfering.

Other network tools
DNS-related
WHOIS

If simply running whois at a command prompt indicates that the software isn't installed, it may need to be added. (See: WHOIS section, subsection on clients.)

misc

traceroute software such as MTR (traceroute software).

Some other useful/nice system utilities
  • For Unix, a good terminal multiplexer, either tmux and/or screen. (If neither is available, perhaps “window”)
  • Software for testing hardware, such as memory testing software
    • In Unix, grab memtester
  • lsof
  • traffic montoring/capturing (TCPDump, Sharks, Ettercap), and similar such as IDS/IPS (Snort)
  • Programs that can offer some precise control over what is sent over the network. Sometimes a command line network crafter comes with Unix operating systems, so check for one before spending time trying to download/install one. To see about some options, see: packet crafters.
Software for a graphical environment

Note: None of this is recommended if a graphical environment is not being used. For Unix, this generally involves using the X Window System.

shells for X Windows
In addition to xterm, which might come with graphical interface, there are other graphical terminals available. RXVT (RXVT.net redirects to RXVT.sf.net, there is also RXVT.org) is, according to its web site, “a popular replacement for the standard” xterm. RXVT is based off of an older offering named xvt. Some other options may be available having names that include a single letter followed by the word “term”, or which include “rxvt” or just “xvt” (without the “xvt” being prefaced with the letter r). Eterm works under Enlightment and also “works just about anywhere.” It supports transparencies, e.g. ETerm has a nice screenshot at Hyperlink from Google search results on OpenBSD a.k.a. Comparison of FreeBSD vs OpenBSD.
screensavers
Built in
Screensavers included with Windows
Several screensavers are included in modern versions of Microsoft Windows. See screensavers section.
Unix
A screen blanker may come with X, able to be used with xset (using one of the parameters that include the term dpms, or by using the s parameter). (For information, see the section on lowering power consumption and/or the screensavers section.)

Some distributions of operating systems may include some other options, so it may be worthwhile to see what is already installed before downloading others (especially if a specific one option doesn't seem to be listed as being available for download).

More screensavers
Most technicians may believe that they are perfectly capable of finding some screensavers. However, for some options which are actually good, see some of the options mentioned in the screensavers section.
Login method / Method to lock system
For text mode, this is generally implemented by running programs in a terminal multiplexer, and if needed to lock a system, just detach the multiplexer and log out. For a graphical environment, the ability to save one's screenspace is generally nice. Unix: May be implemented in screensavers. See also the display managers which allow users to log in: XDM (generally included with X Windows), GDM, KDM, wdm, or other options listed on Wikipedia's list of X display managers. This may commonly be pointed to by a file /etc/X11/default-display-manager which Wikipedia's list of X display managers says is used on “most Linux distributions”.
Window Environments / Managers
Unix: IceWM provides an interface with features that many users will find familiar, implementing well-known standards from CUA user interface. The FVWM is described by OpenBSD FAQ 11.5 - Customizing X as follows: “Fvwm is a good, general purpose window manager”. It is also fairly lightweight, and comes bundled with at least that operating system. (Some prepared documentation, about other window managers, may already exist, and so may be added/merged/referenced by this.)
Desktop Environment
Many people think they want a Desktop Environment when really they might be happy with something simpler, such as the IcmWM Window Manager. See Wikipedia's comparison of X Desktop Managers. (Xfce may supply what many people are looking for. Some software may be designed for use with GNOME or KDE.)
Extensions for a desktop environment
Axe menu (Gnome extention)

A company called m:tier has indicated they like to use Axe Menu (see also: axemenu @ Gnome extensions). To quote directly from the news site (when CompliantBSD 5.2 was released) : “The main modification against the stock GNOME 3.4.2 Desktop is the use of the axemenu extension as a replacement to gnome-shell; this was based on customers feedback reporting that gnome-shell was not a fit for corporate non-IT users.”

Graphical Web browser(s)
Mozilla's code
Browser named Iceweasel / GNU IceCat / Mozilla Firefox, and/or suite named IceApe / Seamonkey may be the most popular/famous options. TOOGAM's software archive: Other Gecko-based browsers provides some other options.
Google Chrome
The Google Chromium web browser (which has a similar name to Google's Chromium OS) supports newer code. There is also Google Chrome web browser which contains code after it has become a part of Google's Chromium.
WebKit engine
Midori (from Xfce), Safari
Text mode browsers
(Naturally, one or more of the text mode browsers may also be used, although the ones that don't support showing graphics may not be as nice of an experience. Some text mode browsers may have support for showing graphics (at least when they are run from an environment where such a feature is supported).
Microsoft Internet Explorer code

Microsoft Internet Explorer compatibility/emulation/software: Upgrade to the latest version for the best stability of Microsoft Internet Explorer code, and for compatibility with newer web content designed for use with Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser. Firefox users may want to use IE Tab (available from Mozilla's Firefox Add-ons: page for IE Tab). Another option may be IE View.

Users of supported versions of Microsoft Windows may view this at http://microsoft.com/ie and/or via Windows Update.

Versions of Internet Explorer have been available for various platforms: MS IE 6 had multiple notable versions: The MS IE 6 with Windows XP Service Pack 2 required Windows XP and provided support for several new features related to security, including a pop-up blocker. MS IE 6 Service Pack 1 ran under Windows 98.

Particularly for platforms that don't support newer versions of MS IE, other browsers may be worth checking out. MS IE 5 was available for UNIX, 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows, and also for Mac OS. (The IE for Mac worked on pre-OSX Mac OS which was not heavily based on BSD code.) There was also a Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.5 for Mac, as shown by MS KB 253793: IE 4.5 for Mac. Presumably MS IE 3 supported Mac 68K processors, as Wikipedia's section of IE 4 for Mac said such support was dropped in version 4.

For yet more options, see: OpenBSD FAQ 8: section listing available web browsers.

Emulation/compatibility

Before getting too excited about these options, research to see how useful they are. Setting them up this early in the process of working with a new system might be something that is not generally recommended. That is mainly because it often is not necessary, but may be time consuming (to install as well as configure and test). However, at least just grabbing the software may not be too much of a distraction if on a download spree.

For options, see code for operating system compatibility, making software compatible.

Space usage tool
Treemap software, including kdirstat (needs KDE), or WinDirStat (for Win95 w/ IE5, Win NT4 SP5, and newer: due to the interface this software running under wine may even be nicer than KDirStat.)
Essential Rodent Trackers

Not recommended for use over remote connections.

xeyes
The xeyes program may often be pre-bundled if X Windows is installed. (In Unix, run “ which xeyes ” to see the name of the executable that will be run.) For those platforms where it isn't pre-bundled, Wikipedia's page about xeyes: section of External links may provide some hints about how to download this super-essential software) is a program that should, ideally, have a transparent background. If so, be sure to run not just one copy, but several! (Strategically place them in multiple locations, such as each corner of the screen.)
Neko

It may be surprising that OS/2 2.0 didn't completely dominate the marketplace, considering that it came pre-bundled with this program.

This program may often need to be downloaded. Unix users may want to check for a downloadable program called xneko.

As a quick example of the concept, WebNeko.net may be a quick way to become familiar with this super-excellence. To understand the concept quickly, click on the link that says “Cat Herding game!”. If the participants seem sleepy after a few seconds, wake them up by moving the mouse cursor. Unfortunately, this implementation might not support having multiple participates of different colors simultaneously engaging in the chase.

For more about the glorious history of Neko, see: Wikipedia's article for Neko.

Neko for Microsoft Windows x64 and Neko98

(Err, okay, so the name of this category is a joke: this software does exist, but this software is hardly essential.)

Hardware support
Battery backup uninterruptable power supply systems

(Although a virtual machine gets power from the physical hadware, a vm could also shutdown cleanly if the UPS is “screaming”, meaning that the UPS is making one or more loud beeps.)

Example software could include NUT (nut, nut-cgi, p5-UPS-Nut, knutclient for KDE), and if APC is being used, APCUPSD (apc-upsd)

For details on setting up the software (if any such communications are provided from here, at this time), see UPS communications.

Even more...
Computer technicians may benefit from familiarity with software offered by http://sectools.org.
Download packages specific to this machine
If this is not meant to be a multi-purpose “parent/base image”/“backing file”, and some specific software is going to be needed to carry out this machine's task, downloading such software now (while in a spree of downloading other software) may be a sensible approach.